# Chapter 13 – Motion and Time

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

You must have heard about the terms ‘motion’ and ‘rest.’ These are frequently used words in physics that deal with the momentum of a body. The concept of motion and rest only applies to objects that have mass. Motion and time are interdependent quantities put on paper in terms of mathematical numbers. The SI unit of speed and velocity is metres per second.s in detail.

#### What is Motion?

Motion is the physical quantity used to describe the state of any body’s momentum w.r.t. a reference point. Now this reference point can be a very ambiguous term for new learners. A person sitting inside a train can be both in rest and motion simultaneously w.r.t. two different reference points. Let us have a look at this concept of the reference point with this same example.

#### What is Reference Point?

It is a stationary point that determines the motion of any object. Let’s take the above example of a man sitting inside a moving train. If we look at the man from outside the train, we can find him moving in the train’s direction. Hence, for the outside viewer, the man is in motion. But suppose we look at him from the perspective of the other man sitting right in front of him. Then he is at rest w.r.t. that man. The reference point is a significant factor in physics motion concepts.

#### Speed vs. Velocity

Both the concepts of speed and velocity describe the motion of any object. We can have slow or fast speed categorisation under speed. The basic difference between speed and velocity is the inclusion of direction; speed is a scalar quantity and doesn’t provide the direction’s details. In contrast, velocity is a vector quantity that has a fixed direction. Speedometer and odometer are fundamental in measuring speed.

#### Types of Speed

We have different types of speed according to how they behave w.r.t. time.

• Uniform Speed: When the object travels the same distance in the same time intervals, we have uniform speed.
• Non-Uniform Speed: When the object travels different distances simultaneously, we have a non-uniform speed.
• Average Speed: To calculate the average speed, you need to divide the total distance travelled by the total time taken to travel that distance.

Average speed = Total distance travelled/Total time taken.

#### Measurement of Time

Time is a scalar quantity measured in seconds, which is its SI unit. We have certain conversion factors as listed below:

• 60 sec = 1 minute
• 60 minute = 1 hour
• 3600 sec = 1 hour

#### Distance-Time Graph

It’s a graph used to represent the distance and time relationship for any object. You can figure out the distance travelled, average speed, and type of speed with the distance-time graph. The distance-time graph depicts the speed of any object under a set of time intervals.

#### How to Make a Distance Time Graph?

• Take the graph sheet and divide it into four quadrants with equal space. The two axes used for intersection and dividing are X-axis and Y-axis.
• Choose an axis to represent the distance, and the other would represent time.
• Mark the values of time and distance on the graph according to the data sets.
• Now join these points with their adjacent points to get your required distance-time graph.
• If the data sets present a straight line on the graph, then it is uniform motion. Otherwise, it is a non-uniform motion. Motion and time are interdependent.

#### Periodic Motion

Periodic motion is the motion that happens recurrently with time. The movement of the swing and the pendulum are examples of periodic motion. They have a nature to oscillate between two endpoints. That means that a car moving uniformly between point A and point B in a straight line also comes under periodic motion, as the vehicle is fluctuating between an extreme fixed point at regular time intervals. Unless left undisturbed by other external forces, the periodic motion continues till time infinity.

#### Conclusion

Motion and time are an essential physics topic that forms the base of studying the mechanics and kinematics concepts. Motion always has a reference point. Speed and velocity are concepts that describe motion. Speed is the distance travelled by an object per unit of time and is a scalar quantity. We can have uniform speed motion or non-uniform speed motion.

#### FAQs

1. What are motion and time?
Motion and time are physical quantities that tell us about the condition of any given object. Motion is associated with the speed and velocity of any object. Time is an interdependent quantity of motion.
2. What are the six types of motion?
The six types of motion are rectilinear motion, circular motion, periodic motion, rotational motion, reciprocating motion, and non-periodic motion.
3. What do you mean by motion?
Motion is the movement of any object concerning a fixed reference point. The concept of motion is defined with speed and velocity.
4. What are the types of motion for class 7?
Motion can be of four types: linear, rotary, reciprocating, and oscillating.
5. What is motion? (very short answer)
Motion is the movement of any object concerning a fixed reference point.

You can find many intuitive video tutorials regarding the various types of motion on the MSVgo app. The concepts such as circular motion and periodic motion are easy to understand through the engaging video tutorials.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
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• Our Environment
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• Wave Optics
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### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
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• Analytical Chemistry
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• Basic concepts of Chemistry
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• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
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### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
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• Diversity In Living Organisms
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• Genes and Chromosomes
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• Health and Its Significance
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• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
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• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
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• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
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• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
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• Geometry – Lines and Angles
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• Linear Programming
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• Mensuration – Areas
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• Number Systems
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• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time