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Chapter 5 – Language of Chemistry

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The language of chemistry — symbols, equations, ions, valency, atoms, particles, molecules, reactions, and so on—are all used in chemistry. In short, a chemical symbol signifies a particular element or an atom of that element. Chemical reactions are often easier to write with chemical symbols than with long chemical names. Various scholars have devised several mechanisms of abstract representation. 

The potential of an element to combine is known as valency. In other terms, an atom’s valency is defined by the number of electrons it may acquire, share, or destroy during a chemical reaction. The valency of elements is used to classify them as monovalent, divalent, and so on. Molecules are created to fulfil an atom’s valency.

A chemical symbol is a one-or two-letter notation that represents an atom in a chemical element. 

In the analysis of elements, a symbol is quite important. For example, the symbol Cl stands for chlorine: the chemical element. A single atom of chlorine has an atomic mass of 17 a.m.u.

The valency of an atom or radical refers to its ability to combine with other atoms or radicals. The number of hydrogen atoms that can join with or displace one atom of the element or radical is known as valency. 

  • Metals are electropositive by composition and must surrender electrons to achieve the octet structure. Group 1 (alkali metals) metals are univalent and contain only one valence electron. 
  • Group 2 metals (alkaline earth metals) are divalent and have two valence electrons. 
  • Group 3 metals are trivalent, meaning they have three valence electrons.
  • Non-metals are electronegative by composition and therefore gain electrons to achieve octet configuration. 
  • Four valence electrons are present in carbon, silicon, and other groups of four elements. They are called tetravalent compounds. These elements achieve octet configuration by sharing electrons with one or more other elements under normal conditions.
  1. When two or more molecules combine to create a new substance, it is called a chemical reaction. 
  2. Reactants are substances that combine to create new compounds, whereas products are the freshly created compounds. 
  3. Chemical reactions are essential in a variety of industries, processes, and even our daily lives. They are constantly occurring around us, such as rusting of iron, pottery, and wine fermentation, to name a few. 
  4. A chemical transition must result in a chemical reaction and is commonly observed in physical adjustments such as precipitation, heat generation, colour change, and so on. 
  5. A reaction may occur between two atoms, ions, or molecules, in which they build a new bond without destroying or creating an atom; however, a new substance is produced from reactants. 
  6. The rate of reaction is influenced by factors such as strain, temperature, and reactant concentration.

There are some significant features of a chemical reaction’s occurrence:-

  1. Changes in chemical composition
    The nature and function of a material shift occur due to chemical reactions, which results in a specific chemical transition. Heat may either be emitted or consumed. In the end, new substances are formed.
  2. Conditions
    A chemical reaction may only take place where the temperature and pressure are about right. If the conditions aren’t correct, the reaction won’t happen.
  3. Products
    Only when the compounds produced are similar to the reactants will a chemical reaction be identified. The latest products are created, which vary from the initial reactants in certain waysChemical equations are symbolic descriptions of chemical reactions that express the reactants and products in their chemical formulae. Symbols are used to represent things like the reaction’s trajectory and the responding bodies’ physical states. In the year 1615, the French chemist Jean Beguin was the first to devise chemical equations. With the help of chemical equations such as the one seen below (for the reaction between hydrogen gas and oxygen gas to form water), chemical reactions can be written. 

    2H2+O2→2H2O

    The responding entities are written on the chemical equation’s left-hand side, whereas the compounds produced by the chemical reactions are written on the right-hand side.

    It’s also worth noting that each of the symbols for the respective reactants and products has a coefficient associated with it. The precise value of stoichiometric number for each individual is represented by the coefficients of entities in a chemical equation.

In this chapter, we learned how chemistry is represented. We learned about the Chemical Reactions & Equations and their occurrence.

  1. What are chemical equations? And how do they work?
    Chemical formulae and symbols are used to describe chemical processes in these equations. The reactants are on the left-hand side of a chemical equation, while the components are on the right-hand side. An emblem that represents the reaction’s trajectory separates these bodies. The stoichiometric coefficient for each reacting object is often allocated.
  2. What are the four different kinds of chemical reactions?
    Synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement are the four basic chemical reactions.
  3. What is the chemistry language?
    The terms symbol, equation, ion, valency, atom, particle, molecule, reaction, and so on are all used in chemistry.
  4. What distinguishes the chemistry language from other languages?
    Prediction, asking, explanation, visualising, and summarising are some of the aspects.
  5. What is chemistry?
    Chemistry is the study of the properties, composition, and structure of substances (defined as elements and compounds), as well as the transformations and energy produced or absorbed during these processes.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
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  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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