The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
If two or more elements mix chemically in a defined mass ratio, the effect is known as a compound. Compounds are compounds made up of two or three distinct kinds of elements in a fixed proportion of atoms. As elements merge, any of the elements’ individual properties are destroyed, and the newly created compound has new properties.
Chemical Formula: Chemical formulas are used to describe compounds. A chemical formula is a description of the atom quantities that make up a certain chemical compound.
The chemical formula of water is H2O, indicating that two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom have joined to create one molecule of H2O. The molecular formula for popular salt is NaCl, which indicates that one molecule of NaCl is made up of one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine.
There are two forms of compounds—molecular compounds and salts. Covalent bonds are used to tie atoms together in molecular compounds. It is bound together in salts by ionic bonds. These are the two kinds of bonds that a compound contains.
Elements may be described as a collection of atoms with the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. While the atoms of an element contain the same number of protons, they may have varying amounts of neutrons, and hence different weights.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have differing amounts of neutrons. There are currently 118 components, with the first 94 being naturally occurring and the other 24 being synthetic.
Elements are chemical compounds that correspond to a particular spot on the current periodic table. Elements are made up of just one form of an atom. They can live as atoms or molecules and cannot be broken down into smaller pieces. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) assigns symbols to elements. For example, the letters O and Al stand for oxygen and aluminium, respectively.
The elements are grouped in the periodic table and categorised as metallic or non-metallic based on their classes. Metals are grouped into three categories: core group metals, transition metals, and f-block metals. These are further subdivided based on their characteristics.
The resultant compound is known as a ‘Mixture’ in chemistry when two or more compounds combine without undergoing a chemical alteration.
The product of combining compounds does not compromise its identity, and they are not chemically mixed. Chemical substances such as atoms and chemicals are mechanically blended or mixed to produce mixtures.
Below are some of the more important techniques for distinguishing substances or mixtures:
Isolating, sorting, and purifying chemical substances is one of the most essential and time-consuming activities in chemistry. Some important and relevant techniques of separation are:
In this chapter, we learned about the basics of elements, compounds and mixtures. We learned about the separation techniques and their types.