The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
Chemistry is the science of material substances’ frameworks, physical properties, and chemical properties. It is essential to recognise that all gases, liquids, and solids are not created equal. In terms of structure, they are all special; this is why the matter’s classification is so crucial.Elements around us can be divided into two categories — metals and non-metals. They are distinguished based on their properties. You must be wondering how one can differentiate between the two. In general, metals (like copper or aluminium) are good conductors of electricity, while non-metals (like phosphorus) are insulators. The properties of metals and non-metals differ from each other based on their state, reaction with air and water, etc.
You must be aware of the periodic table. Most elements in the periodic table are metals. In the periodic table, metals and non-metals are separated by a zigzag line that starts from carbon and ends at radon. Metals generally are found on the left side of the periodic table.
Metals are electro-positive in nature, i.e., they donate their electrons to form positive ions to become more stable.
Properties of Metal Metals have both physical and chemical properties that make them easy to distinguish from non-metals.
Metals are shiny and lustrous in nature.
They are good conductors of electricity.
They have a high melting point.
All metals except mercury are solid at room temperature.
They have a high density.
They are malleable and ductile.
They act as good reducing agents.
They have low electronegativities.
They can form basic oxides in contact with oxygen.
They corrode easily.
Metal can also lose electrons.
Metal Chemical Reaction Metals can react with different elements and salts to form a new component. For example, metals can react with oxygen to form metal oxides.
The reaction of metals with oxygen: When metals react with oxygen, they donate electrons to oxygen to form oxides. The metal oxides thus formed are basic in nature. They can also be atmospheric in nature, meaning atmospheric oxides can be either acidic or basic in nature. Some metals, like sodium or potassium, can react vigorously with oxygen and can also catch fire.
The reaction of metals with water: Metals form metal hydroxide when reacting with water. However, some metals do not react with water, and the reactivity of metal with water differs from metal to metal. Metals like sodium and potassium are highly reactive to water, and form sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide.
The reaction of metals with dilute acids: Metals react vigorously with metals like sodium, potassium, and calcium to form their hydrogen and metal salts. Metals that are under hydrogen in the series of reactivity do not react with dilute acids. They are incapable of displacing hydrogen to react with the acid and form a bond.
The reaction of metals with salts: Metals that are highly reactive displace the less reactive metal and form the oxides, sulfides, or chlorides.
Non-metals occupy the right-hand side of the periodic table, and are fewer in number as compared to metals. Non-metals include sulphur, phosphorus, nitrogen, noble gases, selenium, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and halogens.
Non-metals gain electrons when they react with other compounds, and thus form covalent bonds. They are also highly electro-negative, meaning the atoms of the non-metals attract more electrons than they usually should have. Non-metals also have low melting and boiling point under normal atmospheric pressure.
Properties of Non-Metals Non-metals also have physical and chemical properties that make them easily distinguishable from metals. They react differently to oxygen, water, and salts as well.
They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
They are non-ductile.
They can be brittle.
Non-metals can be either gas, liquid, or solid at room temperature.
They are generally transparent.
They act as oxidising agents.
They have high electro-negative elements.
They can quickly lose or gain valence electrons.
They generally have 4-8 electrons in the outer shell.
Non-Metal Chemical Reaction
Reaction with oxygen: Non-metals form oxides when they come in contact with oxygen. The oxides of the said non-metal can either be neutral or acidic. For example, Sulphur forms sulphur dioxide when it comes in contact with oxygen.
Reaction with water: Non-metals don’t react with water; however, they are highly reactive when they come in contact with oxygen.
The reaction of non-metal with dilute acids: Non-metal are not known to react with acids.
The reaction of non-metals with bases: Non-metals react with bases, and the reaction is very complex. For example, chlorine reacts with sodium hydroxide bases to give sodium hypochlorite, sodium chloride, and water.
Distinguishing between metal non-metals is easy through the following table:
Solid at room temperature
Can be either solid, liquid, or gas at room temperature
Have a metallic surface
Do not have a metallic surface
Malleable and ductile
Brittle and can break easily
Metals are hard, with the exception of sodium
Non-metals are soft, with the exception of the diamond
Which non-metals can be used as fuel? Non-metals such as liquid hydrogen are used as rocket fuel. Rockets have separate hydrogen and oxygen tanks that combine when the ignition is turned on and the gas burns to start the rocket.
What is a metal? Components that can conduct heat and electricity are classified as metals. Metals are also in solid-state and can be easily shaped in whatever shape desired.
Are non-metals essential? Non-metals like oxygen are essential for existence as we breathe in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.