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Chapter 4 – Atomic Structure

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Atomic structure is the structure of an atom that consists of a nucleus (the centre), protons (positively charged ions) and neutrons (neutral). The electrons, which are negatively charged ions, revolve around the nucleus’s core.

The origin of atomic structure and quantum mechanics can be traced back to Democritus, the first person to suggest that all matter is essentially made up of atoms. The analysis of an atom’s composition provides a wealth of information regarding chemical reactions, bonds, and their physical properties. In the 1800s, John Dalton proposed the first empirical explanation of the atomic structure.

The composition of an element’s nucleus and the configuration of electrons surrounding it is referred to as its atomic structure. Protons, electrons, and neutrons are the building blocks of matter’s atomic structure. 

The atom’s nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons, which are surrounded by the atom’s electrons. The total number of protons in an element’s nucleus is defined by its atomic number. 

Protons and electrons are in similar quantities in neutral atoms. Atoms, on the other hand, will accumulate or lose electrons to improve their equilibrium, and the resultant charged body is known as an ion. 

Since various elements have different amounts of protons and electrons, their atomic structures vary. This is why various components have different characteristics.

The atom is the smallest component unit of matter with chemical product properties. Atoms do not live in isolation; however, they merge to form ions and molecules, which then combine in vast quantities to shape the substance we see, sound, and touch.

A molecule is the smallest element of a substance that comprises the compound’s chemical properties. Molecules are made up of atoms arranged in pairs. An atom’s composition is often subdivided into smaller units when describing it. An atom’s sub-particles are protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are found inside the nucleus of the molecule, which is surrounded by electrons.

Atoms and Molecules: Forces at Work
The forces that occur as a consequence of electron transfer are the most basic forces that exist within atoms. Sodium fluoride, for example, is a clear example. The nuclear charge of sodium is +11, with two electrons in the K shell, eight in the L shell, and one in the M shell. With 2 electrons in the K shell and 7 in the L shell, the fluorine atom has a nuclear charge of 9. 

The sodium atom’s outermost electron will easily pass to the fluorine atom, giving all atoms a full shell but with the sodium having a net charge of +1 and the fluorine having a net charge of -1. As a result of direct coulombic contact, these ions attract one another. The force between them is solid, varying as x-2, where x is the distance between the ions and acting in the direction of the line that connects them.

It’s also unsaturated, meaning that a single positive ion will absorb multiple negative ions in its vicinity, and the force exerted by the positive ion on each negative ion is unaffected by the influence of other negative ions. Negative ions can, of course, repel one another.

Isotope Atomic Structure
Nucleons are the constituents of an atom’s nucleus. A proton or a neutron is also a nucleon. Each product has a distinct number of protons, which is represented by its atomic number. However, an element may have several atomic structures, each with a different total number of nucleons.

Isotopes of the atom are variations of the element with a distinct nucleon number (also defined as the mass number). As a result, an element’s isotopes contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. 

The chemical symbol of the element, the atomic number of the element, and the isotope’s mass number are used to characterise the atomic composition of the isotope. There are three known naturally occurring hydrogen isotopes: protium, deuterium, and tritium, for example. 

The stability of an element’s isotopes varies. Isotopes have different half-lives. Due to the fact that they share the same electrical architectures, they usually have similar chemical activity.

Molecules usually have bonding electron pairs and lone pairs, which are non-bonding or unshared electron pairs. Based on Pauli’s exclusion theorem, each bonding or non-bonding electron pair has two electrons in opposite spin direction, +1/2 and -1/2 in one orbital, while an unpaired electron is a single electron, alone in one orbital. A paramagnetic species is a free radical and is a molecule with an unpaired electron.

In this chapter, we learned about the basics of atomic structure. We learned about atoms, Molecules & Radicals.

  1. What are subatomic particles, and what do they do?
    The objects that make up an atom are known as subatomic particles. This definition applies to protons, electrons, and neutrons in general.
  2. How do isotopes’ atomic configurations differ?
    They differ in terms of the overall number of neutrons in the atom’s nucleus, as shown by their nucleon counts.
  3. What are some of the flaws in Bohr’s atomic model?
    According to this atomic model, the composition of an atom provides weak spectral forecasts for larger atoms. It also didn’t account for the Zeeman impact. Only the hydrogen continuum may be explained effectively.
  4. How will the total amount of neutrons in an isotope’s nucleus be determined?
    The cumulative number of protons and neutrons in an isotope is used to calculate its mass number. The total number of protons in the nucleus is defined by the atomic number. As a result, subtracting the atomic number from the mass number yields the number of neutrons.
  5. What is the definition of a molecule?
    A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound with the chemical properties of that element or compound.

At MSVgo, we give you simple video lessons to learn and understand the Atomic Structure.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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