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Chapter 1 – Matter in Our Surroundings

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Matter Definition: The matter may be categorized as solid, liquid, and gas on the basis of the inter-particle forces and the structure of the particles.

All three forms of matter are synonymous with rising or reducing pressure and temperature. 

For example, ice may be transformed from a solid to a liquid by increasing temperatures. Let’s understand more of this topic in detail.

AttributeSolidLiquidGas
ShapeShape is fixedThe shape is not fixedThe shape is not definite
VolumeVolume is fixedVolume is fixedVolume is not definite
EnergyLowMedHigh
CompressibilityDifficult to compressAlmost difficult to compressEasy to compress
Molecular arrangementClosely arrangedSparsely arrangedVery sparsely arranged
FluidityNot flowableCan flow from high to low levelCan flow in all directions

The phenomenon by which molecules experience a spontaneous transformation to the gaseous process at some temperature below its boiling phase is known as evaporation.

For eg, the incremental drying of damp clothes is induced by the evaporation of water into water vapor.

Factors that Cause Evaporation

  1. Temperature: The evaporation intensity rises with a rise in temperature.
  2. Surface area: the evaporation intensity rises with a rise in surface area.
  3. Humidity: The evaporation rate declines with a rise in humidity.
  4. Wind speed: the evaporation rate rises with a rise in wind speed.

During evaporation, the liquid ions consume energy from the environment to resolve the inter-particle powers of attraction and experience phase transition. The removal of heat from the surroundings renders the entire environment cold.

For example, sweating cools down our bodies.

Physical property is that part of the matter which can be observed or calculated without altering its existence or structure.

It is regardless of the amount of matter at hand.

Physical properties of matter include appearance, color, smell, mass, texture, melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc.

The matter is something that has a mass that takes up volume. Anything we can touch, see, hear, taste, and the smell is matter. It’s made up of small objects that can’t be seen by the eye. The particles of which the matter is largely made up impact its state and characteristics (physical and chemical).

  1. Particles of matter have room between them

This attribute is one of the principles behind the solubility of a material in other substances. For example, as sugar is dissolved in water, the water level does not increase because the sugar particles reach the interparticle space between the water particles.

  1. Particles of matter are always on the run

Matter particles exhibit constant random motions owing to the kinetic energy they contain.

The rise in temperature raises the kinetic energy of the particles, allowing them to travel more intensely.

  1. Particles of matter attract each other

There is an interparticle attraction force working between the particles in each material. We need to resolve this force to break the material. The power of the force varies from one material to another. The particles of which the matter is made affect the condition and properties of the matter (physical and chemical).

As the particles of matter intermingle with each other on their own, the process is called diffusion. Spreading of ink in water, for example. During diffusion, the particles fill the spaces of the interparticle. The rate of diffusion rises with a rise in temperature owing to an increase in the kinetic energy of the particles.

As the temperature rises, the kinetic energy of the particles of matter increases and they tend to vibrate with higher energy. As a consequence, the force of attraction between the particles declines and the particles separate from their location and continue to travel freely.

As a response, the states of matter begin to shift. Solids experience a transition in the process to become liquids. Likewise, liquids often experience a phase transition in the formation of gases.

The melting point of the solid is described as the temperature at which the solid melts to become liquid under atmospheric pressure.

Around the melting point, these two phases, i.e. solid and liquid, are in equilibrium, i.e. at this point both the solid-state and the liquid state occur at the same time.

In this chapter, we learned about the existence of matter in our surroundings. Topics like chemistry applications of evaporative cooling, melting point, evaporation are covered in this chapter.

1. What is matter in our surroundings? 

Matter is something that consumes space which is called matter and has mass. Air and water, hydrogen and oxygen, sugar and sand, etc. Matter is composed of tiny particles that are very small. There is space between particles of matter that attract each other.

2. What is fusion in matter in our surroundings? 

Fusion happens because, to create a heavy one, two light atoms bond together, or fusion. Hydrogen is no longer a gas but a plasma at this heat, an incredibly high-energy state of matter in which electrons are drawn out of their atoms.

3. Can matter change its state? 

If heated or cooled, matter may turn from one state to another. When water (a liquid) is cooled, it transforms into ice (a solid).

4. What is the physical nature of matter? 

The physical nature of matter is the packing of molecules. The physical nature of a solid is tightly packed molecules. For liquid, it’s less tightly packed and for gases, it is very loosely packed.

5. What causes matter to change states?

When matter shifts from one state to another, incorporating or withdrawing energy from matter creates a physical transition. For eg, it becomes steam or vapor by applying thermal energy (heat) to liquid water (a gas). It is often possible to induce physical changes by motion and pressure.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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