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Chapter 2 – Is Matter Around Us Pure?

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

We do understand that matter consists of particles that are organized in a certain way. Particles in gases are well dispersed and can move around easily, solids, on the other hand, are closely packed particles, usually with no space to move around. Let’s understand this topic in detail.

Pure SubstancesMixtures
Elements or compounds are pure substances. Just one kind of entity is made up of them. They can not be broken down by chemical or physical techniques into simplified entities. They have a composition that is fixed. Diamonds, carbon dioxide, are some examples.Mixtures are formed by merely combining two or more pure substances (components) such that their own chemical identity is preserved by each substance.
Homogeneous MixtureHeterogeneous Mixture
A homogeneous liquid or solution is considered a mixture and has a uniform composition throughout.A heterogeneous mixture is called a mixture that contains physically distinct parts and has a non-uniform composition.
Examples: water sugar, water salt.Examples: salt and iron filings, sand and sugar combination.

Learning about physical and chemical changes can be quite interesting! To simplify them for you, here are the key differences that you need to understand:

Physical ChangesChemical Changes
When only the physical properties such as the form, height, color, or state of the material change, a substance is considered to undergo a physical change. There is no creation of new material. It is said that a substance undergoes a chemical transition when a new substance with entirely new (physical and chemical) properties is created.
Example: Ice melting, boiling point elevation.Examples: wood or paper burning, milk souring.

A solution is a combination of two or more substances that is homogeneous. 

Properties: 

  1. The particles have a diameter of less than 1 nm and are too small. 
  2. Naked eyes cannot see the particles. 
  3. A ray of light traveling through it is not scattered by particles and therefore does not exhibit the Tyndall effect. 
  4. The ions of the solvent never calm down and remain undisturbed. 
  5. It is difficult to isolate the components of a solution using filtration. 

Types of Solutions on the Basis of Solvent Concentration 

Dependent on the solution’s concentration, three types of solutions exist: 

  1. Dilute 
  2. Concentrated 
  3. Saturated 

General Properties of Mixtures: Through basic physical methods, heterogeneous mixtures may be divided into their constituents. Methods include: handpicking, filtration, sieving. 

Two Immiscible Liquids’ Separation 

Separation of two immiscible liquids from a mixture: 

Using a splitting pipe, separation of a mixture of two immiscible liquids is accomplished. 

Applications: In separating iron from its ore, the combination of oil and water must be extracted. 

Centrifugation  

For the isolation of two liquids in a mixture, centrifugation utilizes centrifugal energy. 

Here, a denser portion of the mixture travels away from the axis, heading towards the axis with a lighter component. 

Crystallization 

Crystallization is a method of separation in which solids from a solution are removed. 

The solvent molecules tend to evaporate in this procedure, leaving behind the solutes as the solution is heated in an open container. 

Crystallization Applications 

Seawater purification, isolation of alum crystals from impure specimens, etc. 

Elements 

Elements are species of atoms that in their atomic nuclei contain the same number of protons. 

Symbols such as hydrogen (H), boron (B), carbon (C), silicon (Si), etc. are represented by the atoms. 

Metals 

Metal is a solid material that, with strong electrical and thermal conductivity, is usually rigid, glossy, malleable, fusible, and ductile. 

Examples: copper, aluminum, iron, tin, gold, 

Nonmetals 

Non-metals are not malleable or ductile and are brittle. 

They are bad heat and energy conductors. 

Examples: Boron, carbon, etc. 

Compounds 

Compounds are compounds composed of a fixed ratio of two or more distinct forms of elements in their atoms. 

Mixtures are made up of more than one kind of pure type of matter, referred to as a material. 

Types of Mixtures: Homogeneous Blends, Heterogeneous Blends.

As two or more elements mix chemically by mass in a fixed ratio, the result obtained is known as a compound.

In this chapter, we learned about is matter around us pure. This is a very interesting chapter. Is matter around us pure covers topics like the osmotic pressure method, solutions, and mixtures.

1. Is matter around us pure explanation? 

A substance is a single, pure component of matter. When we glance around, we can see that much of the matter around us occur as mixtures of two or three pure elements, e.g. seawater, rocks, soil, etc.

2. Is matter around us pure? 

Which metal occurs at room temperature in the liquid state?

(a) Sodium

(b) Potassium

(c) Mercury

(d) Bromine

Answer: Mercury

Which of these is not a metalloid?

(a)  Boron

(b) Silicon

(c) Germanium

(d) Tungsten

Answer: Tungsten

3. What is an impure substance? 

Impure substances are made up of various forms of elements combined together or of more pure substances blended together in some proportion. Impure substances are often referred to as mixtures. Impure substances or mixtures are further categorized into two groups, homogeneous or heterogeneous. For eg, sand and water.

4. What are pure and impure substances? 

Pure SubstancesImpure Substances
Pure substances have a definite structure with some physical and chemical properties.Impure substances are composed of two or more pure substances fused together in some proportion.
They are homogeneous, i.e. their distribution is uniform in the majority of the bulk.They can be homogeneous or heterogeneous, i.e. their distribution is not standardized in the majority of the bulk. They’re mixtures.
Examples are elements and compounds.Examples are air, seawater, petroleum, sugar solution in water.

 

5. Is ice a pure substance?

Yes, ice is a pure substance. It is a pure substance because it has only one element that is water which is frozen to form ice.

At MSVgo, we give you simple video lessons to learn and understand the essential distinction between them. You can even explore over 6,000 more videos to understand Math & Science topics with real-life examples. Go ahead, try it now!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
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Middle School Science

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