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Chapter 10 – Gravitation

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The force of attraction between any two bodies is gravitation or simply gravity. For a certain degree of force, all objects in the universe attract each other. But in most situations, because of the very great distance of separation, the force is too small to be detected. Besides that, the spectrum of gravity is limitless. However, as objects move farther, the effect gets poorer. 

Gravitational Theory History 

Ptolemy proposed a geocentric model but struggled to consider planetary motions, leading Nicholas Copernicus to create the heliocentric model whose theory is focused on the rotation of a test mass around the source mass in circular orbits, while the model correctly predicts the location of planets and their movements, but failed to clarify certain things, such as the existence of sea mass.

With a force known as Gravitational Force, each body in this universe pulls other bodies to itself, so gravity is a study of the interaction between two masses. Of the two weights, the heavier one is considered the mass of the source, and the lighter one is called the mass of the test. 

Gravitational force is a fundamental force that depends only on the source mass on the location of test mass and often operates along the line that joins the centers of the two masses.

The force exercised between two objects by each other is given by the following relationship, according to Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation. 

Fg(m1.m2)/r2

Where, 

g: the force of gravitation between two bodies 

m1: the mass of one object 

m2: the mass of the second object 

r: the distance between two objects’ centers 

Centripetal Force 

When a body undergoes circular motion, a force acting in the center of the circle is perceived. A centripetal force is what this center-seeking force is called. 

Free Fall and Motion 

Acceleration due to gravity is stable, when an object is under free fall, 

g = 9.8ms^-2

The value of g does not depend on mass, i.e. any large or small particle feels the same acceleration due to free-fall gravity. For freely falling objects, all three equations of motion are true as they are under uniform motion. 

The convention symbol: towards Earth g is +ve / away from Earth g is -ve. 

Mass and Weight  

An object’s mass is the measure of its inertia and is constant throughout the universe. If the value of g increases, an object’s weight keeps changing. Weight on an object = mg is nothing but an enticing power of the Planet. 

The weight of an object on the Moon is 1/6 times that of the Earth’s weight. 

Thrust And Pressure 

It is called thrust, the force acting on an object perpendicular to the surface. The thrust effect depends on the region of interaction. The strain, per unit area, is thrust. The Pascal unit of the SI is (Pa). More friction is applied on a force acting on a smaller area than the same force acting on a wider area. 

Fluid pressure 

The strain exerted by the fluid in a jar is transferred to the walls of the container without decreasing in both directions.

The upward force exerted on an object by a fluid is known as upthrust or buoyant pressure. 

The degree of buoyancy depends upon the fluid mass. If an object’s mass is smaller than the fluid, it can float. If the object’s mass exceeds that of the fluid, it will sink. 

According to the theory of Archimedes, when a body is completely or partly immersed in a fluid, it feels an upward force proportional to the weight of the fluid that is replaced by it. 

Relative Density 

Relative density = A substance’s density / Water density 

The Falling Moon – Revolution of the Moon across the Earth 

Due to the centripetal force, which is the Planet’s force of gravity, the moon orbits around Earth. When the attraction force between the Planet and the moon disappears, the moon will begin to travel in a tangential straight-line direction to its orbit around the Earth.

The Story of Gravity – Introduction to Gravity: Kepler’s Laws

An ellipse with the sun as its focal point is the orbit of a planet. At similar periods of time, the line that joins the planets and the sun sweeps equal regions. 

Square of the angular time period T Cube of the mean size of a planet from the sun.

r ^ 3 . α . T. ^ 2

This chapter taught us about the basics of gravitation. We learned about the concepts of gravity and its applications in the real world.

1. What do you mean by gravitation? 

In mechanics, gravity, also known as gravitation, is the fundamental force of attraction working between all matter. 

2. What is the difference between gravity and gravitation? 

Although both concepts sound the same, momentum and gravity differ, gravity is the force that exists between two bodies, while gravity is the force that occurs between the earth and a body. 

3. What is the gravitation formula? 

The gravitational force mathematical formula is F=GMmr^2, where the gravitational constant is G. 

4. What are the 3 laws of gravity? 

Three Principles of Motion by Newton 

  • Until an external force acts on it, any entity in a state of uniform motion will stay in that state of motion. 
  • Force equals accelerating mass times. 
  • There is an equal and opposite answer to any action. 

5. How did Einstein explain gravity?

Einstein argued that gravity is not at all a factor. He defined it as a curvature induced by mass and energy in time and space.

MSVgo is your one-stop solution for learning Gravitation through simple, interactive, and explanatory visualizations.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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