# Chapter 1 – Physical World

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Physics permeates our day to day life. It also originates from various forces occurring in the universe. Macroscopic and microscopic details of the universe also form a significant part of physics. There are four basic fundamental forces in physics among which gravitational force is a major force.

Physics has an extremely wide scope and multiple physical quantities like length, mass, time and energy are also part of the same.

#### Let’s Understand the Fundamental Forces in Nature

Some of the forces which are a part of our day to day life are – muscular, friction, compression, elongation, gas pressure, electric, magnetic, and likewise. All of the above-mentioned forces are derived forces, which have originated from the fundamental forces given below. Let’s have a look at some of the important fundamental forces:

1. Gravitational Force – This is also called a universal force as all objects in the universe experience this force. The primary reason for this force is based on a simple mass concept of different objects.
2. Electromagnetic Force – This force is seen between the charged particles. The charged particles here have electric attraction and repulsion. Whereas, the particles which are in motion produce magnetic force. Together they are known as the electromagnetic force
3. Strong Nuclear Force – This is based on the attraction force of a proton and a neutron. This is independently charged and acts between the above-mentioned particles.
4. Weak Nuclear Force – This force is only seen in a few nuclear particles.

Have a look at the below-mentioned table to know some of the basic difference between these forces –

NameRelative StrengthRangeOperates Among
Gravitational Force10-39No LimitEvery object in the universe
Weak Nuclear Force10-13Very ShortSome particles – electron and neutron
Electromagnetic Force10-2No LimitAll the charged particles
Strong Nuclear Force1Very ShortProton and neutron

#### Conservation Laws

This is a hypothesis that is based on the law of observation and experiment. If required then this can be verified with the help of experiments.

• Law of Conservation of Energy – This law applies to all the entities of the universe. This is based on a simple principle that the energy remains constant and unchanged over time. Under this law, the energy gets converted from one form to another. Here, nature is known to produce symmetrical results at different time intervals.
For example, when rainfall falls from the sky then potential energy is converted to kinetic energy. This kinetic energy can further be used to produce electrical energy.
• Law of Conservation of Mass – This law is used widely in chemical reactions. A chemical reaction in the simplest terms is the arrangement of atoms among multiple molecules. In a chemical reaction, if the total binding energy of the product molecules is more than the total binding energy of the reacting molecules, then the result is heat and the reaction is termed as exothermic. The opposite of this is termed as the endothermic. But you must remember that the atoms are only rearranged and not destroyed and thus, the total mass of the reactants and the produce always remains the same in the chemical reaction.
For example, when a wood burns, then the mass of soot, ash, and gas becomes equal to the mass of charcoal and oxygen when first reacted.
As per Einstein theory, mass is related to energy.
E = mc2
E – Stands for Energy
m – Stands for Mass
c – Stands for speed of light in vacuum
• Law of Conservation of Momentum – This has two major divisions: the Law of Linear Momentum and the Law of Angular Momentum. If the Law of Nature is directly symmetrical to that of space, then it falls in the category of linear momentum. Let us understand this with a simple example – Law of Gravitation is the same on both earth and moon. But the acceleration power at the moon is 1/6th of that of the earth because of the gravitational force
When the particles in space have no definite direction, then it falls under the category of the Law of Angular Momentum.
• Law of Conservation of Charge – This is based on a simple understanding that a positive charge is always equal and accompanies by a negative charge. For example, when a plastic ruler is rubbed with a cloth, then the ruler becomes negatively charged whereas the cloth becomes positively charged.

The physical world is a very wide subject and it’s quite important to understand it fully. Other than the above-mentioned laws and forces, there are a number of other auxiliary forces that govern how the physical world moves. For having a detailed read and complete understanding of the concept, have a look at the MSVgo application. All the concepts and related topics are explained in simple language through videos and examples. For example, you will find multiple videos on gravitational forces where the entire topic is well explained with the help of examples.

#### FAQ

1. What is the physical world?

The physical world refers to the laws of nature, forces and its applications around us.

2. What is the study of the physical world around us?

By study of the physical world, we mean the study of the non-organic world.

3. What is an example of physical science?

Any study related to inorganic beings is termed as physical science. For example, a study related to the moon, the earth, the sun can be termed as physical science.

4. What are the 5 major divisions of physical science?

Physical Science has 5 major divisions which are given below:

• Chemistry
• Astronomy
• Earth Science
• Geology
• Planetary Science

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electron Beams and Radioactivity
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Algebra – Quadratic Equations
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Quadrilaterals
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Chemistry in Your Life
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Light, Shadows And Reflections
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time
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