# Chapter 8 – Gravitation

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Gravitation is the force of the interplay between two masses. There are two types of masses – source mass and test mass. Of the two, the heavier one is termed source mass, and the lighter one is termed test mass. Gravitational force is a focal power, which relies upon the situation of test mass from the source mass and consistently acts along the line joining the focuses of the two masses. So, understanding the concepts of gravitation can assist you in other concepts of physics.

#### Newton’s law of gravitation

This law was postulated by sir Isaac Newton. Newton’s law of gravitation puts forth the philosophy that explains the motions of planets and moons. This law is also called the universal law of gravitation.

The following is the equation for universal gravitation:- where F is the gravitational power acting between two forces, m1 and m2 are the two masses, r is the separation between the focuses of their masses, and G is the gravitational constant.

#### Kepler's laws of planetary motion

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion explain how the planets revolve around the sun. It has three laws –

1. Law of orbits It states that planets revolve around the sun in orbit as foci. When a planet is closer to the earth, it is called perihelion, and when against the earth, it is called aphelion. 2. Law of equal areas – It explains that no matter where the orbit is located, each planet covers the same area of space and in the same interval of time.

3. Law of periods – The square of the period of an insurgency of a planet around the sun in a curved circle is straightforwardly proportional to the block of its semi-significant axis.

#### Acceleration due to gravity

Acceleration due to gravity is the quickening picked up by an object because of gravitational power. Its SI unit is m/s2. It has both size and course; thus, it’s a vector amount. Acceleration due to gravity is expressed by g. You need to apprehend that the standard estimation of g on the outside of the earth, a drift level is 9.8 m/s2. The formula of acceleration due to gravity is, g = GM/r2 , where G is the universal gravitational constant, M is mass, and r is the radius.

#### Variation of acceleration due to gravity

Variation of acceleration due to gravity can take place in the following cases –

• Height from the surface of the earth
• Depth below the surface of the earth
• The shape of the earth
• The rotation of the earth

#### Gravitational field

When source mass and test mass correlate due to the force of gravitational attraction, it is called the gravitational field. This model explains when a body is surrounded by space in which other bodies experience the force of gravity. It is useful in the study of gravitational force. Newton’s per kilogram measures the gravitational field.

Formula:

g = F/m

Where

F = gravitational force and m = mass of the object.

Intensity of gravitational field

The strength of the gravitational field is called gravitational field intensity. The intensity of the gravitational field is (Eg) = – GM/r2 r^. Gravitational field intensity relies on source mass.

Gravitational potential energy

Energy procured by an object due to the change in the position of the object in the gravitational field, it is called gravitational potential energy. In other words, it is an energy associated with gravity.

For example, if you put an object on the chair and other objects above the chair. So it is stated that the object placed above the chair will have more gravitational potential energy than the other.

Formula: GPE = m⋅g⋅h

Where

m- The mass in kilograms,

g – Acceleration due to gravity

h – The height above the ground

#### Escape velocity

Escape velocity can be defined as the minimum speed at which an object goes to break free from either the planets or moon’s gravity and leave with no headway of impulse. Where

• vc is the escape velocity
• G is the universal gravitational constant
• M is the mass of the celestial object
• r is the distance from the object to the centre of mass

• What is the cause of gravitation?
The main cause of gravitation is the invisible force that is present in the universe that pulls the objects towards each other. NASA uses two spacecraft to compute the Earth’s gravitation.
• What is the force of gravity on earth?
Earth’s gravity betides on all its planets’ mass and density. 9.807 m/s2 is the force of gravity on earth. Mathematically, it is represented as 5.97237 x 1024 and 5.514 g/cm3, respectively. The force of gravity varies on where you are standing on it.
• What is the definition of gravitation?
The universal power of fascination acting between all matters is called gravitation. It naturally draws in masses towards one another. For example – The ball that tumbles down when you toss it noticeable all around. The power gets more vulnerable to the occasion when objects come nearer.

The moon goes around the earth, and the sun revolves around the earth is all due to the force of gravity. Gravitation is a paramount topic in physics of utmost importance. Understanding the subject matter of gravitation is a prerequisite to understanding the various laws of gravity. For better comprehension of the topic, you can watch the videos on MSVgo app and official site. It has a video library that explains concepts with examples or explanatory visualisations or animations. MSVgo is developed that imparts a detailed explanation of any complex topics or concepts. Check the videos and enhance your knowledge with MSVgo!

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
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• Magnetism and Matter
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• Nuclear Energy
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• Waves
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### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
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### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
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• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
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• Neural Control And Coordination
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• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
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• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
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• Respiratory System
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• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
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• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
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• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
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• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
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• Linear Programming
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• Mensuration – Areas
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• Number Systems
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• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
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• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
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### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
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• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
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• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
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• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
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• Some Natural Phenomena
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• Sound
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• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
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• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time