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Chapter 8 – Gravitation

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Gravitation is the force of the interplay between two masses. There are two types of masses – source mass and test mass. Of the two, the heavier one is termed source mass, and the lighter one is termed test mass. Gravitational force is a focal power, which relies upon the situation of test mass from the source mass and consistently acts along the line joining the focuses of the two masses. So, understanding the concepts of gravitation can assist you in other concepts of physics. 

This law was postulated by sir Isaac Newton. Newton’s law of gravitation puts forth the philosophy that explains the motions of planets and moons. This law is also called the universal law of gravitation.  

The following is the equation for universal gravitation:- 

 

 

 

where F is the gravitational power acting between two forces, m1 and m2 are the two masses, r is the separation between the focuses of their masses, and G is the gravitational constant.

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion explain how the planets revolve around the sun. It has three laws – 

1. Law of orbits It states that planets revolve around the sun in orbit as foci. When a planet is closer to the earth, it is called perihelion, and when against the earth, it is called aphelion.

2. Law of equal areas – It explains that no matter where the orbit is located, each planet covers the same area of space and in the same interval of time.

3. Law of periods – The square of the period of an insurgency of a planet around the sun in a curved circle is straightforwardly proportional to the block of its semi-significant axis.

Acceleration due to gravity is the quickening picked up by an object because of gravitational power. Its SI unit is m/s2. It has both size and course; thus, it’s a vector amount. Acceleration due to gravity is expressed by g. You need to apprehend that the standard estimation of g on the outside of the earth, a drift level is 9.8 m/s2. The formula of acceleration due to gravity is, g = GM/r2 , where G is the universal gravitational constant, M is mass, and r is the radius.

Variation of acceleration due to gravity can take place in the following cases –

  • Height from the surface of the earth
  • Depth below the surface of the earth
  • The shape of the earth
  • The rotation of the earth

When source mass and test mass correlate due to the force of gravitational attraction, it is called the gravitational field. This model explains when a body is surrounded by space in which other bodies experience the force of gravity. It is useful in the study of gravitational force. Newton’s per kilogram measures the gravitational field.

Formula: 

g = F/m

Where

F = gravitational force and m = mass of the object.

Intensity of gravitational field

The strength of the gravitational field is called gravitational field intensity. The intensity of the gravitational field is (Eg) = – GM/r2 r^. Gravitational field intensity relies on source mass.

Gravitational potential energy 

Energy procured by an object due to the change in the position of the object in the gravitational field, it is called gravitational potential energy. In other words, it is an energy associated with gravity. 

For example, if you put an object on the chair and other objects above the chair. So it is stated that the object placed above the chair will have more gravitational potential energy than the other. 

Formula: GPE = m⋅g⋅h

Where

m- The mass in kilograms,

g – Acceleration due to gravity 

h – The height above the ground

Escape velocity can be defined as the minimum speed at which an object goes to break free from either the planets or moon’s gravity and leave with no headway of impulse.

 

 

 

Where

  • vc is the escape velocity
  • G is the universal gravitational constant
  • M is the mass of the celestial object
  • r is the distance from the object to the centre of mass
  • What is the cause of gravitation?
    The main cause of gravitation is the invisible force that is present in the universe that pulls the objects towards each other. NASA uses two spacecraft to compute the Earth’s gravitation.
  • What is the force of gravity on earth?
    Earth’s gravity betides on all its planets’ mass and density. 9.807 m/s2 is the force of gravity on earth. Mathematically, it is represented as 5.97237 x 1024 and 5.514 g/cm3, respectively. The force of gravity varies on where you are standing on it.
  • What is the definition of gravitation?
    The universal power of fascination acting between all matters is called gravitation. It naturally draws in masses towards one another. For example – The ball that tumbles down when you toss it noticeable all around. The power gets more vulnerable to the occasion when objects come nearer.

The moon goes around the earth, and the sun revolves around the earth is all due to the force of gravity. Gravitation is a paramount topic in physics of utmost importance. Understanding the subject matter of gravitation is a prerequisite to understanding the various laws of gravity. For better comprehension of the topic, you can watch the videos on MSVgo app and official site. It has a video library that explains concepts with examples or explanatory visualisations or animations. MSVgo is developed that imparts a detailed explanation of any complex topics or concepts. Check the videos and enhance your knowledge with MSVgo!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
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  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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