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In 1648, hydrogen chloride was found. It’s a precious chemical compound. It can be contained in free form in volcanic gases and mammalian gastric juices. It was invented in 1648 by a chemist named Johann Rudolf Glauber, who used rock salt and concentrated H₂SO₄ to create it. Joseph Priestley was able to acquire it in pure form in 1772.
Hydrogen chloride is made of two atoms and is a diatomic molecule. It is a colourless, toxic gas with an unpleasant, acrid odour and compound of the elements hydrogen and chlorine. It is highly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and ether. It emits gases when exposed to wet air. It is not flammable and is a mediocre electrical conductor.
Hydrogen Chloride has a molecular formula named HCl and has a molecular mass of 36.5. It forms a Covalent Bond and has a melting point of -114 °C, and the boiling point is -85 °C. Hydrogen Chloride’s formula weight is 36.46, and the value of specific gravity or density is 1.2. It has no flashpoint.
The chemical properties of Hydrogen Chloride as listed below.
Type of ReactionExampleWith metal(M+HCl⟶MetalChloride+Hydrogen)2𝑁𝑎+2𝐻𝐶𝑙→2𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙+𝐻2<?sub>↑
With oxides/hydroxides(MO/MOH+HCl⟶Metal Chloride+water)𝑀𝑔𝑂+2𝐻𝐶𝑙→𝑀𝑔𝐶𝑙2+𝐻2𝑂
With sulphites/bisulphites(𝑀𝑆𝑂3+HCl⟶MetalChloride+Water+Sulphur Dioxide)𝑁𝑎2𝑆𝑂2+2𝐻𝐶𝑙→2𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙+𝐻2𝑂+𝑆𝑂2↑
With metal sulphide(MS+HCl⟶Metal Chloride+Hydrogen sulphide)𝑁𝑎2𝑆+2𝐻𝐶𝑙→2𝑁𝑎𝐶𝑙+𝐻2𝑆↑
In the laboratory, we make hydrogen chloride by treating NaCl with concentrated sulfuric acid. The mixture is then heated to 420 degrees Celsius.
NaCl + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HCl
As a byproduct, we obtain sodium bisulphate, which is insoluble. As a result, we add more NaCl to it. This mixture must be heated to a higher temperature of approximately 823K. It generates soluble sodium sulfate and HCl steam.
NaHSO4 + NaCl → Na2SO4 + HCl
This HCl is dried by treating it with concentrated H₂SO₄. HCl is not dried in the presence of P₄O1₀ or brisk lime. It is attributed to the fact that it interacts with both of these substances.
The chemical formula for ammonia is NH3. It is a colourless gas with the chemical formula NH3.
It is made up of two elements: hydrogen and nitrogen. It’s known as ammonium hydroxide in its aqueous shape. This inorganic material emits a strong odour. It is toxic and caustic in its compressed nature.
Nitric acid has the molecular formula HNO3, which is a strong acid. It’s also known as nitre’s spirit and aqua fortis. It is colourless in its purest nature, but as it ages, it develops a yellow cast. The decomposition of nitric acid into nitrogen oxides and water produces this colour. It’s very corrosive and poisonous. It produces severe burns on the skin. It forms nitrate salts as it interacts with hydroxides, metals, and oxides.
HNO3 is a strong oxidising agent. The catalytic oxidation of ammonia generates it. It’s a popular laboratory reagent and a significant chemical in the development of explosives and fertilisers. Nitric acid has a PH of roughly 3.01.
Mattling acid or Oil of Vitriol are two other names for H₂SO₄. It is corrosive and has a high acidic disposition. It functions as an oxidising and dehydrating agent at higher concentrations. It’s a clear, syrupy substance with no odour and no colour. It is water-soluble, and when immersed in water, it releases heat. It’s a popular ingredient in fertiliser production. It’s also used in wastewater treatment and chemical synthesis.
In this chapter, we learned about the concept of hydrogen chloride as a compound. We learned about the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen chloride and how it is manufactured. We studied various other compounds like nitric acid, H₂SO₄, and ammonia, along with hydrogen chloride.