# Chapter 3 – Matter

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Take a look at the objects around you, trees, rivers, fans, buildings, tables, and animals. What is the similarity in all the objects? Are they occupying any space? Yes. Can you feel their mass? Yes. All the objects around us (living as well as non-living) that have a certain mass and occupy space are called matter. Will you call your feelings, pain, laughter, or odor as matter? No. Since they don’t have mass or occupy space.

Matter is classified based on properties shown by them, including shape, volume, the force of attraction.

The particles of matter have certain properties:

1. Particles of matter are tiny and are made of atoms
2. Particles of matter have space in between them
3. They attract each other because of the force of attraction
4. Smaller particles occupy spaces between the bigger particles

#### States of Matter

Based on the force of attraction between the particles, there are three states of matter. By looking at a table, river, and smoke, can you see the difference between them? These objects are classified into solid, liquid, and gas-based on differences in their properties like shape, volume, the intermolecular force of attraction, cohesive forces, and Brownian movement.

Classification of Matter into Solid
In solid matter, like a table, you will observe that it has a fixed shape and volume. It is rigid due to the strong force of attraction between the particles. Due to this strong force, the particles have very little space between them, and they are arranged compactly. Cohesive forces between the particles tend to hold them tightly and are strong in solids. Particles move randomly inside the matter and show Brownian movement. But, in solids, this movement is the least due to the strong forces of attraction.

Classification of Matter into Liquid
Try to pour the water in a spoon, glass, bottle, or bucket. You will notice that water can take the shape of the container. Water being a liquid doesn’t have a specific shape but takes that of the container. It does have a definite volume though. Since liquids can flow, the particles have more space between them and hence weaker force of attraction than solid. Liquids have comparatively less cohesive forces. Brownian movement in the liquid is more than the solid due to the weaker force of attraction.

Classification of Matter into Gases
Fill a balloon with air, and then blow it out. You will see that it seems very light. Gases are the state of matter without any shape or volume. You can easily move your hands past the air. This means that the particles are far from each other. The particles of gases have the weakest force of attraction between them. Gases have weak cohesive forces between the particles. Brownian movement of the particles is highest since due to less force of attraction, they move randomly in the matter.

#### Effect of Heat on Matter

Take two ice cubes in a pan, keep it still and observe it. After some time, you will observe that ice has melted to form water. Put the pan on the stove to provide heat or bring the pan in sunlight. You will observe that water has vanished. These observations depict the effect of heat on the state of matter.

Evaporation
On providing the heat to solid-state, it changes into a liquid, and on further heating, the liquid state converts into a gaseous state. But why does it happen? Heat is a type of energy and thus leads to change in the state of matter. Particles of solid absorb heat, and they move far from each other and hence convert into a liquid state. On supplying more heat to the liquid, they will further separate out and lead to a decrease in the force of attraction. This will change their state into a gaseous state. Thus, the change of state of matter is due to the heat provided to it.

Condensation
What happens during cloud formation? Small water vapors combine and form clouds, and when the clouds become heavy, they fall on earth as rain. This conversion of gas into liquid is called condensation.

Freezing
Keep a bowl filled with water inside the freezer. You will observe that after some time water converts into ice. This conversion of liquid into solid at decreasing temperature is called freezing.

Expansion
You might have seen that some gaps are left in the railway tracks during summer. Do you know the reason for that? This is due to expansion. While heating matter, particles undergo expansion since they absorb heat energy. They start moving randomly and far from each other, and the force of attraction decreases between them.

Chemical Change
Above mentioned examples were physical changes in the state of matter resulting from heating, but sometimes heating can lead to a chemical change of the matter. You might have observed a burning candle. On burning the candle, melting of wax is a physical change, while burning of wick in the presence of oxygen is a chemical change.

#### Conclusion

You have learned about matter, state of matter, classification of matter into solid, liquid, gas, and conversion of matter. To know about matter further, you can download the MSVgo app, which offers a large base of learning videos, quizzes, interactive games, and many more to the students till grade 12.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electron Beams and Radioactivity
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Algebra – Quadratic Equations
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Quadrilaterals
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Chemistry in Your Life
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Light, Shadows And Reflections
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time
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