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Chapter 2 – The Cell

You might have heard that leaves are called the kitchen of the plant. The reason is that they prepare the food for plants using carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight by the process of photosynthesis

Plants release oxygen as a product of photosynthesis, which is then inhaled by other living organisms. This is how plants sustain life on earth. 

Along with this, leaves carry out transpiration or remove excess water from the plant body by evaporation. In the epidermis part of the leaves, the exchange of gases and water molecules takes place.

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

A cell is the most fundamental unit of existence. This implies that a cell is a living thing’s smallest organ. Although certain species (bacteria, yeast, etc.) are made up of just one cell, others are multicellular organisms made up of several cells. 

There is a strong distinction between unicellular and multicellular species, but certain organisms may move from one to the other in some circumstances.

There are a few distinctions between a plant cell and an animal cell. They are listed below.

Plant Cell
The kingdom Plantae is primarily made up of multicellular eukaryotes that are autotrophic. Furthermore. Plant cells have organelles like chloroplast, cell wall, and vacuole that help distinguish them from animal cells. Although several plant species are yet to be found, the ones have been described as a total of about 400,000. Plant cells usually range in size from 10 to 100 micrometres. The work of photosynthesis is carried out by the plant cells.

Animal Cell
Of all the species on the globe, the Kingdom Animalia accounts for three-quarters of the total. The human body comprises 10^14 cells that range in size from 10 to 30 nanometers in diameter. Animal cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplast, which distinguishes them from plant cells. 

Cell walls are thought to have vanished with mutation, resulting in the emergence of animal cells with more mature cells, tissues, and organs that operate more precisely.

Here is how a plant and an animal cell looks like:

Source

Cell organelles are cellular elements. These cell organelles comprise membrane-bound and non-membrane-bound organelles found inside the cells and have different shapes and functions. For the cell’s regular working, they organise and act effectively. A few of them serve to structure and sustain the organism, whilst others are interested in cell locomotion and reproduction. Organelles are found in the cell and divided into three groups depending on whether they have a membrane.

There are some of them: 

Cell Wall
A plant cell’s cell wall is a dynamic, well-organized structure that forms its form (it is also found in bacteria, fungi, algae, and archaea). 

A cell wall serves many roles in addition to specifying the structure of plant cells, including preserving the structural integrity of the cell, serving as a line of protection against a variety of external influences, and hosting numerous channels, pores, and receptors that control various functions of the cell. As a result, it is a multifunctional arrangement in plant cells that often aids in developing the plant. 

Cell Membrane
The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a bi-lipid membrane layer (a double membranous structure) containing proteins and carbohydrates. The contents of a cell are contained by this fluid-like structure that encircles the cell. 

It’s also selectively permeable, so it only lets those materials (nutrients, minerals, and so on) get through to keep the cell alive. The cell membrane also serves to shield and stabilise the cell. 

Nucleus
A cell’s nucleus may be thought of as the biggest organelle. The nucleus is the cell’s power core since it is enclosed by a double membrane (nuclear envelope) and includes genetic material (genes). As a result, it regulates things like cell metabolism and reproduction. 

Cytoplasm
The cytoplasm is a jelly-like fluid matrix located within the membrane (outside the nucleus). In this continuously flowing fluid, various kinds of organelles and minerals (salts) are suspended. The cytoplasm contains all of the cell’s organelles and aids in maintaining the cell’s form.

Plastids
Plastids are pigment-containing, membrane-bound organelles. Plastids are classified into three categories based on the pigments used: 

  • Chloroplasts: Chloroplasts are membrane-bound organelles that come in various shapes, including disk, spherical, discoid, oval, and ribbon. 
  • Chromoplasts: These are fat-soluble carotenoid pigments such as xanthophylls, carotene, and others that give plants their distinctive colour – yellow, orange, red, and so on. 
  • Leucoplasts: Colorless plastids that store nutrients are known as leucoplasts. Carbohydrates (like starch in potatoes) are stored in amyloplasts, proteins are stored in aleuroplasts, and oils and fats are stored in elaioplasts.

Vacuole
Vacuoles are storage bubbles that are present in cells that have irregular shapes. They are membrane-enclosed fluid-filled organelles. The food or a range of nutrients that a cell may need to live are stored in the vacuole. It also serves as a storage facility for waste. Vacuoles dispose of the waste material. As a result, the remainder of the cell is safe from infection. The scale and amount of vacuoles in animal and plant cells vary. Plant cells have wider vacuoles than animal cells.

In this chapter, we learned about the differences between plant and animal cells. We learned about the different cell organelles and their types. This knowledge would help us understand how cells work and how they are an integral part of the human body.

  1. What is the concept of cell biology?
    The science of cell structure and function is known as cell biology, and it is based on the idea that the cell is the most basic unit of existence.
  2. What exactly is a cell?
    All living beings are made up of cells, which are the fundamental building blocks.
  3. What are the components of a cell?
    A cell comprises three parts: the cell membrane, the nucleus, and the cytoplasm, which sits between the two.
  4. What is the total number of human cells in the body?
    There are 37.2 trillion cells in the body
  5. What is contained inside a cell?
    The nucleus and cytoplasm of a cell are located within the cell membrane, which controls what enters and exits the cell. Chromosomes, the cell’s genetic material, and a nucleolus, which generates ribosomes, are all found in the nucleus.

MSVgo is your one-stop solution for learning the cell through simple, interactive, and explanatory interactive videos.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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