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Chapter 3 – Human Body

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Human Anatomy is the analysis of an object’s composition. Human anatomy is the study of how human body parts work together to create a cohesive structure. Bipedal, with fur covering the body, mammary glands, and a series of highly evolved sense organs, the human body can be characterised as bipedal. In terms of human anatomy, we have a specialised circulatory system that allows for effective fluid and nutrient transfer across the body.

The digestive system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients, which the body then uses for cell development and repair. The human digestive system and nutrition are concerned with an organism’s food consumption and energy use. This is an important mechanism that allows living organisms to acquire energy from a variety of sources. Before the nutrients in the food we consume are used to produce energy, many refinements go through. Digestion is the term for this operation. For this operation, humans and other species have specific organs and structures.

Below are the main components of the digestive system: 

  • Mouth
  • Teeth
  • Tongue
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Small and large intestines
  • Rectum

The biochemical method of inhaling and exhaling gases between the cells and the air is known as breathing. Breathing entails respiratory organs, including the windpipe, lungs, and nose. 

In contrast, respiration is a chemical reaction that occurs within the organism. The air we breathe carries oxygen to our lungs and then to our cells, where it aids in the breakdown of glucose, resulting in the production of electricity. The cells use this energy to carry out their various tasks.

The intensity of the air we breathe in and out of our lungs differs. But, as the air pressure drops, the alveolar spaces expand, and air reaches the lungs (inhalation), and when the pressure of the alveoli inside the lungs exceeds the ambient pressure, the air is blown out of the lungs (exhalation). The amplitude of the pressure differential determines the airflow volume.

The heart pumps blood into the circulatory system, made up of a network of lungs, nerves, and capillaries. The primary function is to provide the body with vital foods, minerals, and hormones. On the other hand, the circulatory system is in charge of gathering metabolic waste and chemicals from the cells and tissues, either filtered or removed from the body.

The human circulatory system comprises four major organs, each with its purpose and function. The organs of the circulatory system that are important include: 

  • Heart
  • Blood (technically, blood is considered a tissue and not an organ)
  • Blood Vessels
  • Lymphatic system

The ABO mechanism distinguishes four major blood groups: 

  • Blood group  A – has A antigens on red blood cells and anti-B antibodies in the plasma 
  • Blood group  B – has B antigens and anti-A antibodies in the plasma 
  • Blood group O – has no antigens, yet all anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma blood 
  • Blood group AB – has both A and B antigens but no antibodies

Below are the essential characteristics of the human circulatory system: 

  • Blood, heart, blood vessels, and lymph make up the human circulatory system. 
  • Blood is circulated in the human circulatory system in two chains (double circulation): one for oxygenated blood and the other for deoxygenated blood. 
  • There are four chambers in the human heart: two ventricles and two auricles. 
  • A body-wide network of blood vessels makes up the human circulatory system. Atherosclerosis affects arteries, nerves, and capillaries. 
  • Blood arteries’ primary role is to distribute oxygenated blood and nutrients across the body. It’s also in charge of gathering metabolic wastes for expulsion from the body. 
  • The duration of the circulatory system is not physically shown in most diagrams. If a human’s lungs, muscles, and capillaries were spread out end to end, they would cover a complete distance of 1,00,000 kilometres (or roughly eight times the diameter of the Earth).

The human body’s blood flow is unusual, and it’s also powerful. Double circulation refers to the fact that blood circulates twice across the heart. Some species, such as fish, have single circulation, in which blood just makes one circle across the whole body. 

The greatest benefit of double circulation is that oxygenated blood is supplied to all tissues of the body at all times and is not combined with deoxygenated blood.

In this chapter, we learned about the different systems of the human body. We learned about the Function Of Each Organ, the process of every system and the blood groups.

  1. What are the different components of the human body?
    A bony skeleton and muscles make up the human body. The brain, trunk, and limbs are the three primary components of the body.
  2. What are the human body’s five main organs?
    Humans have five vital organs that function to survive. The brain, heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs are among these organs.
  3. What is the body’s tiniest organ?
    The gland of the pineal.
  4. What is the body’s hardest-working organ?
    The heart. This muscle, the body’s hardest-working organ, is essential to any cell in the body.
  5. Is blood considered an organ?
    Blood is a tissue as well as a solvent. It’s called tissue because it’s made up of identical specialised cells that perform specific functions. The blood is fluid, and these cells are trapped in a liquid matrix (plasma).

At MSVgo, we have created a vast library of video lessons to learn and understand the human body’s essential features.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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