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Chapter 4 – Health and Hygiene

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Everyone wishes to live a healthier lifestyle. According to the World Health Organization, health is described as “a full condition of physical, emotional, and social well-being, rather than merely the absence of illness or infirmity.” That is to suggest, and an individual cannot be considered safe simply because they are disease-free. Physical and mental well-being is equally critical, necessitating a clean environment. The words “health” and “hygiene” are synonymous. 

Hygiene is described as the practice of a few behaviours in order to keep one’s overall health in good shape. Hygiene should be maintained at the group level (social hygiene) or at the individual level (personal hygiene).

There are two kinds of diseases:

  • Infectious
  • Non-infectious diseases 
  1. Infectious Diseases
    Communicable Diseases are diseases that transmit from one human to another. Pathogens, which are microorganisms, are generally to blame (fungi, viruses, protozoans, rickettsia, bacteria, worms). Pathogens can escape the host and infect a new individual when an infected person discharges bodily fluids (sneeze, cough, etc). Chickenpox, malaria, cholera, among other diseases, are examples.
  2. Non-infectious Diseases
    Pathogens cause these diseases, but they are often influenced by other variables such as age, dietary deficiency, ethnicity, and lifestyle. Hypertension, asthma, and cancer are only a few examples. Non-infectious diseases do not spread to anyone and keep an individual who has contracted them in check. Non-infectious disorders include Alzheimer’s, diabetes, cataracts, and heart disease.

The process by which a pathogen spreads from one host to another is known as transmission. Infections and diseases may be spread in a variety of forms. It can be passed from person to person or transmitted by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or fungi. There are two different ways for pathogens to spread: 

  1. When a pathogen is transmitted directly from an infected person, this is known as direct transmission. For example, if the blood of a Hepatitis B infected patient comes into contact with an open wound, the wounded person may contract the disease. 
  2. Indirect transmission occurs when pathogens are spread through vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, ticks, dogs, and other animals rather than directly from the infected person.

There are two methods for preventing a disease: 


  1. General Strategies
    And the environment we work in, sanitary standards should be upheld. By having fewer cramped living spaces, airborne microbe exposure can be limited.
    To avoid water-borne infections, safe drinking water should be accessible.
    Provide a sterile place to keep mosquitoes from spawning. This helps to keep vector-borne pathogens away.
  2. Specific Methods
    Microbes are usually fought by the immune system. The immune system’s cells are trained to eliminate contagious microbes. That’s why we don’t all get ill when we come into touch with someone who is contagious. These cells are activated as soon as an antigen reaches the body.

To remain well, a balanced diet includes a variety of foods in appropriate quantities. It is important for a balanced body and mind. A single meal does not have any of the necessary nutrients. According to nutritionists, a healthy, well-balanced diet is important for promoting optimal health and healthy body weight. A poor diet causes malnourishment in the body, whereas an excessive diet causes weight gain, diabetes, obesity, and other diet-related diseases.

Personal hygiene includes keeping one’s body clean, consuming clean water, washing fruits and vegetables before dining, and washing one’s hands, among other things. Public sanitation applies to the correct disposal of waste and excreta, which includes waste separation and recycling, routine disinfection, and the upkeep of the city’s water reservoir. In order to avoid infections, kitchen hygiene is highly necessary.

Chemical pollutants, such as particulates, are not necessarily the source of pollution (like smoke and dust). Sound, fire, and light are all forms of energy that may pollute the environment. Pollutants are compounds that pollute the environment. 

Pollution has an effect on the ecological balance, also in minute numbers. Pollutants may work their way up the food chain and through the human body. 

High levels of air contamination may raise the likelihood of heart failure, wheezing, coughing, and respiratory problems, as well as inflammation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Heart attacks, asthma, and other respiratory disorders may also be aggravated by air emissions.

In this chapter, we learned about the importance of health and hygiene. We learned about the types of diseases, Bacterial And Viral Disease & Community Health and their prevention methods.

  1. What is the significance of hygiene and health?
    Both health and social reasons necessitate good personal hygiene. It includes keeping the face, arms, and body clean to prevent germs and infection from spreading. Personal hygiene improves your own well-being while still having an effect on the lives of those around you.
  2. What is the differentiation between hygiene and health?
    The key distinction between Health and Hygiene is that Health refers to a degree of functional or metabolic quality in a living person, while Hygiene refers to a collection of activities used to maintain health. Hygiene is a series of procedures used to keep one’s health in good shape.
  3. What is the difference between the two styles of hygiene?
    The Different Types Of Hygiene
    Personal hygiene.
    Environmental hygiene.
  4. What is the concept of poor hygiene?
    Self-neglect, or the inability or refusal to attend to one’s personal needs, may manifest itself in poor hygiene.
  5. What is an illustration of hygienic practice?
    A restaurant that requires all of its workers to wash their hands after using the toilet is an illustration of hygiene.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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