Syllabus covered in the MSVgo app

Download MSVgo app now!

Chapter 2 – Motion in one dimension

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


A body is defined as a fixed amount of matter with limited boundaries in all four directions. A body has a fixed shape and occupies a designated space in the space. You might have come across this simple observation that things seem to move when they rest according to other dimensions. In this article, you will get all the information about motion in one dimension.

A particle refers to a small portion of the surrounding matter and is very small in size. During the study of particles, the distance and dimensions are usually neglected. Therefore, a particle is defined as a fixed part of matter that has a definite position in the space but not a concrete size.

We all have seen in our daily lives that an object’s position can change at any time. Whenever a particle moves in a straight line, its situation changes for the frame’s fixed time.

Therefore, we can define Motion as below:

When an object or a particle changes its position when it travels on a straight line, it can also change its position concerning the origin or any other fixed point of the frame. An object or a particle is also said to be in Motion when it changes its position continuously concerning a fixed point. A body is said to be in Motion if every part of it moves in the same direction at the same speed.

Whenever a particle or a body travels or changes its position on a straight line, it is Motion in one dimension.

We all must have seen the railway platform from the running trains. It usually seems like all the things that are placed on the platform are also changing their positions. But if you go and stand on the platform, you will find out that the items placed on the forum are at rest.

Therefore, if a person takes training as the reference frame, the platform’s objects are not stationary. But if the person takes the platform as the reference, the things on the platform are static. In other words, there is a significant need to define a frame of reference in which a person studies the Motion of an object. A frame of reference can also be defined as a set of coordinate axes that are definite concerning a point in the space.

We know that displacement is defined concerning direction but not distance. The magnitude of the displacement is known to be the distance. We have to keep in mind while solving the questions of kinematics that the distance traveled between two points is not exactly the same concept as the distance actually between them. Distance is the absolute path that an object travels between two specific positions. As we know, space has no directions, so it also has no sign.

A scalar quantity is defined as a quantity that has no direction. A scalar quantity only has magnitude. A vector quantity is defined as a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

Some examples of scalar quantities are-

  • Speed
  • Time
  • Area
  • Mass

Some examples of vector quantities are-

  • Acceleration
  • Momentum
  • Velocity
  • Displacement

The speed of a substance is defined as the ratio of distance to the time that it takes to cover the distance. It is a scalar quantity.


In this formula,

  • s  or speed is measured in m.s-1
  • d is the amount of distance measured in m
  • t is the time taken by the particle and is measured in s

The four types of speed that we use in motion are:

  • Uniform speed
  • Average speed
  • Instantaneous speed
  • Variable speed

The velocity of an object is defined as the rate of the change of the position of the object wrt the frame of reference. Velocity is a vector quantity. It has both magnitude and direction. The SI unit of velocity is meter per second.

If an object is seen moving at a relative position wrt to the frame of reference (for instance, if a man is seen moving at a relative position wrt to the frame of reference such as a building), there is a change in the object’s position. This concept of change in the relative position of an object is known as displacement.

Displacement is described as the change that occurs in the position of any object:

Δx = xf − xo,

where Δx is displacement

 xf is the final position

 x0 is the initial position.

In this, the Δ (delta) is the Greek letter that describes “change in” whichever quantity follows it; So, Δx means to be changed in position. To find displacement, we need to subtract the initial position from the final position of the object.

When an object moves in space with constant acceleration, its velocity decreases or increases at a fixed rate throughout its Motion. The concept of average acceleration is equal to the acceleration at any instant keeping the acceleration constant.

Negative acceleration comes up in two cases-

  • Case 1: When the object undergoes a decreasing velocity while moving in a positive direction.
  • Case 2: When the thing experiences an increasing rate while driving in a negative order.

An acceleration time graph is used to determine the change in the velocity of an object in a fixed interval of time.

A Displacementtime graph is used to show the displacement of a moving object in a given period of time.

A velocity-time graph is used to determine the speed and direction of an object in a given interval of time.

Three Equations of Motion are:

  • v = u + at
  • s = ut + (1/2) at2
  •  v2 = u2 + 2as

The displacement is independent of the path taken in traveling between the two positions and is simply the difference in the two marks’ function and is independent of the path taken in traveling between the two characters. The distance is the total path taken between the two positions.

  1. What is the Position Vector?
    A position vector has used the position of a particle at any instant. It is a vector notation that joins the origin with the moving particle.
  2. What is speed?
    Speed is defined as the rate of change of distance per unit of time.
  3. What is acceleration?
    Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity per unit of time. The use of acceleration comes up in the case of non-uniform motion. It is always a vector quantity.
  4. What are scalar and vector quantities?
    Scalar quantities only have magnitude. Vector quantities have magnitude as well as direction.
  5. What do you mean by kinematics?
    Kinematics refers to a branch of physics that deals with the motion of objects without considering their reference to forces.

At MSVgo, we provide you with easy video lessons to understand the basic concepts of motion and understand them easily. To know more about topics, download the MSVgo app from the iOS App Store, Google Play Store.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
Please switch to portrait mode
for the best experience.
Click to open Popup