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Chapter 3 – Water

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


We all know about water, which is something that we drink every day. But you must have also heard that the government is making electrical energy from the hydroelectric dams that use water. Water is also used in cooking, needed by plants to survive, and also used in manufacturing various chemicals and things. So we all are aware of the importance of water around us. Look at these statistics, which say that on average, each individual uses around 500-700 litres of water in a day, be it cooking, bathing, drinking, or more. You must have also heard that more than 97% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Let’s check more concepts regarding water in this article.

Water is considered a natural resource that is found adequately on this earth. But don’t get it wrong when we say that water is found adequately on earth so we can water it; it’s not true. Most of the water sources that we have are oceans and seas, whose water is not drinkable. Water is used for many uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing, playing, washing, irrigation and more. The chemical formula of water is H2O. It says that there are two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom combined to form one water molecule. Water can be found in three major states that are solid, liquid and gas. The solid state of the water is ice that is achieved at 0 degrees C. the liquid state of water is what we see around us. And the gaseous state of water is the water vapours that flow in our atmosphere.

Water Properties:

Some of the properties of water are given below.

It is a colourless liquid and has higher thermal conductivity. It also acts as a universal solvent and functions in intermixing things in water to form a solution. Water as a solvent is rigorously used worldwide to manufacture newer chemicals and products that use a solute and the solvent. It also forms azeotropes with other types of solvents.

The intermixing of solutes and solvents form solutions. The solvent is generally a liquid medium that dissolves the solid particles of the solute. Solutes can also be liquid. We form a saturated solution when we have dissolved the maximum amount of solute that the solvent can take. Hence the solute is at its maximum concentration in the saturated solution.

Water as a liquid solvent plays a vital role in the solubility of any solute. The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute dissolved in a particular solvent and can be determined mathematically.

Hydrated substances are substances that have water molecules in their compound structure, while the anhydrous substances are dry and do not have any water molecules in their structure. The inclusion of water molecules in the structure makes a substance hydrous.

Some of the properties of the hydrous and anhydrous substances are given below.

Hydrous substances have water molecules in their structure and are known as hydrates. Hygroscopic compounds can form hydrates by absorbing water. These compounds can release water vapour while heating and hence stores the latent heat energy.

Anhydrous substances are dry and do not have water molecules in their compound structure. They do not release water vapour on burning and hence instantly catch fire.

Hard water is considered the raw water containing many impurities that are dissolved, such as minerals, calcium, magnesium, and more. While soft water is the treated water that has only the sodium ions, and it tastes salty.

 Properties of Hard water:

  • It contains minerals such as magnesium and calcium
  • Sometimes it is preferred as drinking water.
  • Hair and skin become dry on constant use.
  • E.g., groundwater such as on handpumps.

Properties of soft water:

  • It contains the sodium ions
  • Not preferred as drinking water.
  • It tastes salty.
  • The skin and hair become soft on constant use.
  • E.g., rainwater

Water is present all around us and forms a major chunk of the earth’s surface. It has various day-to-day uses that make it one of the most used and important natural resources on our planet. We can form solutions using water as a solvent that dissolves solid solutes in them. There are many sources of water on earth from where we get the hard water that contains many minerals dissolved in them. When we separate these minerals from the hard water, we get soft alkaline water.

  1. What is the importance of water?
    Water is required by every living thing and is used extensively in our lives. They are used in drinking, washing, bathing, cooking, irrigation and manufacturing processes.
  2. What is the basic difference between hydrous and anhydrous substances?
    The basic difference between these substances is the inclusion of water molecules in their molecular structure. If we have water molecules in the molecule structure, then they are hydrated; otherwise, they are anhydrous.
  3. What is the molecular formula of hard water?
    Hard water is the untreated raw water that contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium and more in it. The molecular formula for hard water is D2O.
  4. What is an unsaturated solution?
    The solution in which more solute can be dissolved is called an unsaturated solution as their concentration is still not at its peak.
  5. What are the sources of water on earth?
    The major sources of water on earth are the seas, oceans, glaciers, springs, rivers, streams, lakes, underground water and more.

If you want to know more about the properties of water and sources discovered lately, then check the video tutorials on MSVgo app provide complete information regarding this topic. Download the app and clarify your concepts.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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