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Chapter 1 – The Language of Chemistry

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


The language of chemistry has its script, such as symbol, equation, ion, valency, particle, molecule, and the list goes on. In short, a chemical symbol signifies a particular element or an atom of that element. Chemical reactions are often easier to write with chemical symbols than with long chemical names. Several scholars have devised several mechanisms of abstract representation. It also involves naming certain compounds.

The elements that form a compound and the number of atoms of each substance in the lowest unit of the chemical substance, even if it is a molecule or a formula unit, are mentioned in a chemical formula.

Knowing the names of the elements and a few basics helps understand simpler compounds. We may also do the opposite: we should write the chemical formula if we know the compound’s name.

A chemical equation is a written expression that describes the modifications that arise in chemical reactions using chemical symbols and chemical formulas rather than terms.

The following illustration shows the difference between a word definition of a chemical reaction and a chemical equation for the same reaction:

As calcium sulfide interacts with water, calcium oxide and hydrogen sulfide are formed.

CaS + H_2O \rightarrow CaO + H_2S

Chemical calculations may be thought of as sentences in the same manner that chemical symbols are letters and formulas are terms.

Reactants are the compounds found at the onset of a chemical reaction. In a chemical reaction, a reactant is a starting agent that changes when the reaction progresses. Reactants are absorbed as a chemical reaction progresses, and new materials with new chemical properties, known as products, are created. A material formed as a consequence of a chemical reaction is a product.

There are multiple isotopes of a common compound. Isotope masses are taken into consideration before measuring atomic weight. The proportion of isotopes probably differs. Isotope relative abundance and mass must be taken into account when measuring atomic weight. The average of the mean mass of the atoms of a chemical element to a certain standard is atomic weight or relative atomic mass. Since 1961, the standard unit of atomic mass has been one-twelfth of the atomic mass of the carbon-12 isotope. An isotope is one of two or three species of atoms of the same chemical element with separate atomic mass numbers (total number of protons + total number of neutrons).

The ratio of a substance’s average mass per molecule or designated object to 1/12 of the mass of nuclide 12C is known as relative molecular mass (Mr), often known as molecular mass. The sum of the relative atomic masses of all the atoms that make up a molecule is the molecular mass.

The ratio of each element’s number to the total amount of actual elements in the compound compounded by 100 is the compound’s percentage composition. The quantity is expressed in grams of the various elements current.

Any compound’s percent composition expresses its composition in terms of all of the elements present. As a result, it aids in the chemical examination of a specific compound.

The following formula calculates the percentage composition of a given element:

%CE=(gE/gT) x 100

The empirical formula, also known as the simplest formula, yields the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound. This formula specifies the relative number of atoms in each unit in the compound.

Let’s start with the information provided in the issue: the amount of weight of each product.

  • In case a percentage is already provided, we’ll say that the net mass is a hundred gram and that each element’s mass equals the given percentage.
  • Shift the mass of every element to moles with the help of the molar mass.
  • Subtract each mole value from the lowest number of moles measured.
  • To the nearest whole amount, round up. The mole ratio of the components is denoted as empirical formula subscript.
  • If the amount is too large to round off, multiply each response to the identical factor to obtain the smallest multiple(whole number).

In this chapter, we learned about the language of chemistry through some basic concepts, like calculating the valency from the formula and the empirical formula of compounds.

  1. What is the significance of atomic mass?
    It is the relationship between mass, which can be calculated in the lab, and moles, which are atom numbers. A lot of what we study in chemistry is calculated by atomic ratios.
  2. What is the discrepancy between mass and weight?
    The mass of an item is a calculation of the object’s inertial property or the total amount of matter contained inside it. An item’s weight calculates the force exerted by gravity on it or the force needed to keep it alive.
  3. How do you give a formula a name?
    The element name identifies the first variable in the formula, and the -ide suffix is added to the second part, derived from the element stem’s name. A numerical prefix system calculates the number of atoms in a molecule.
  4. What is the concept of valency?
    In chemistry, an element’s valence or valency is an indicator of its ability to interact with other atoms to create chemical compounds or molecules.
  5. What is the most important aspect of chemistry?
    Substances, components, or compounds, which have a definite structure represented by a chemical formula, are at the centre of chemistry.

To learn more about the language of chemistry through simple, interactive, and explanatory visualizations, get the MSVgo app. Get access to a library of Math and Science Videos to gain conceptual clarity with 6,000+ videos, quizzes and more.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
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  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
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  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
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  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
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  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
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  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
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  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
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  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
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  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
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  • Animal Kingdom
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  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
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  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
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  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
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  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
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  • Geometry – Area
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  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
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  • Linear Programming
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  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
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  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
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  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
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  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
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  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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