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Chapter 4 – Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Atomic structure refers to the form of an atom containing a nucleus (centre) in which protons (positively charged) and neutrons (neutral) are present. The negatively charged ions, or electrons, rotate around the centre of the nucleus.

The history of atomic structure and quantum mechanics goes back to the time of Democritus, the man who first suggested that matter is made up of atoms. The study of an atom structure provides a great insight into the whole class of chemical reactions, bonds, and physical properties. John Dalton proposed the first empirical explanation of atomic structure in the 1800s.

Chemical Bonding is the forming of a chemical bond between atoms, molecules or ions to produce a chemical substance. This chemical bond is what keeps the atoms in the resulting compound together.

The attractive force that binds together different constituents and stabilises them by a total loss of energy is called chemical bonding. Chemical compounds are dependent on the strength of the chemical bonds between their constituents; the more robust the bonding between the constituents, the more stable the resulting compound will be.

Atoms are known as the building blocks of matter. It is the smallest constituent unit of matter that possesses the properties of the chemical element. Atoms do not live individually; instead, they form ions and molecules that further aggregate in vast quantities to form matter that we see, sense and touch.

Atoms are too rare to be seen; thus, studies to figure out their structure and behaviour have to be performed with many of them. From these experiments’ results, we may try to create a hypothetical model of an atom that behaves like an actual atom.

The Greek philosopher Democritus proposed the theory of the atom around 450 B.C. In essence, however, the approach has been overlooked for more than 2000 years.

John Dalton reintroduced the atom in 1800. He has provided proof for the atoms and has established atomic theory. His principle is fundamentally correct. However, he was incorrect to think that atoms are the smallest particles of matter.

J.J. Thomson discovered electrons in 1897. He suggested the atom’s plum pudding concept. In this model, negative electrons are dispersed throughout the “sea” of a positive charge.

The credit for the discovery of the nucleus goes to Ernest Rutherford, who found the nucleus in 1911. He is also credited with the discovery of protons. Rutherford assumed that electrons would spontaneously circle the nucleus.

The physicist James Chadwick experimented in 1932. The subsequent radiation revealed an intense penetration through the lead shell, which could not be explained by the particles understood at the time. To show that the particle was a neutron, Chadwick weighed its mass. Instead, he weighed everything else about the collision and used the knowledge to quantify the mass. Chadwick bombed boron with alpha particles to test its density. Boron released neutral rays like beryllium.

Neil Bohr introduced the Bohr atom model in 1915. Bohr changed this structure of the atom by demonstrating that electrons pass in fixed orbitals and not somewhere in between. He also showed that each orbit has a fixed energy level. Rutherford essentially clarified the atom’s nucleus, and Bohr changed the model into electrons and their energy levels. The Bohr model is a small nucleus (positively charged) with negative electrons passing around the nucleus in orbits. Bohr observed that the electron positioned further from the nucleus had more energy, and the electrons around the nucleus had less energy.

The overall number of protons in the nucleus of an atom gives us the atom’s atomic number, represented with the letter ‘Z.’ All the atoms of a given element have the same number of protons and the same atomic number. Atoms and different elements have different atomic numbers. For example, all carbon atoms have an atomic number of 6, while all Oxygen atoms have 8 protons in their nucleus.

  • Valence Electrons: Electrons in the unfilled outer shells are valence electrons.
  • Isotopes: Isotopes may be classified as varieties of chemical elements with the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons. In other words, isotopes are types of elements that vary in their nucleon numbers owing to the difference in the overall number of neutrons in their respective nucleons.

In this chapter, we learned about the basic concepts of atomic structure and chemical bonding. The chapter also gave an understanding of concepts like isotopes and ionic electrovalency.

  1. What are subatomic particles?
    Subatomic particles are the particles that make up an atom. Generally speaking, this word refers to protons, electrons, and neutrons.
  2. How do isotope atomic structures vary?
    They differ in terms of the overall number of neutrons found in the atom’s nucleus represented by their nucleon numbers.
  3. What are the drawbacks of the Bohr atomic model?
    According to this atomic model, the structure of the atom gives weak spectral estimates of larger atoms. It also failed to clarify the influence of Zeeman. Only the hydrogen continuum is explained effectively.
  4. How did Bohr find the electrons?
    Bohr was the first to discover that electrons travel around the nucleus in various orbits and that the properties of the element are dictated by the number of electrons in the outer orbit.
  5. Who found electrons?
    J.J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897 when he studied the properties of the cathode ray.

At MSVgo, we give you simple video lessons to learn and understand the concept of atomic structure and chemical bonding. Video tutorials along with to quizzes, games and more will help you gain conceptual clarity in Math and Science.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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