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Chapter 5 – Human Anatomy and Physiology

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Human Anatomy and Physiology are two of the most fundamental concepts and disciplines of the biological sciences. Anatomy is the analysis of the body’s internal and exterior systems and physical interactions, while physiology is studying how things function. Your body type is the anatomy and how you function (fast or slow) is your physiology.

The two disciplines of anatomy and physiology are inextricably linked. A hand is capable of grasping objects (function) since the weight, shape, and versatility of the fingers (form) dictate the types of objects that a hand may grasp (function). Owing to the structure of muscles and bones, a muscle contracts and brings bones together (function), and the arrangement of organelles within muscle cells (form) dictates how much and how long a muscle can contract (function).

Its form determines the work of the body structure. The structure determines the way systems function. Thus, learning Physiology necessitates knowledge of Anatomy and vice versa. Let’s discuss the anatomy and physiology of the human body.

Human anatomy consists of the following:

The Skeleton

In an adult body, the skeletal structure consists of 206 distinct bones. The axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton are the two main divisions of these bones. The axial skeleton extends parallel to the midline axis of the body and is composed of 80 bones located in the following regions:

  • Skull
    Except for the mandible, the head is made up of 22 fused bones. These 21 fused bones are separate in children to allow for head and brain growth but combine in adults to provide additional strength and defence. The mandible retains its mobility as a jaw bone and forms the skull’s only movable joint with the temporal bone.
  • Hyoid
    The hyoid is a tiny U-shaped bone located immediately under the mandible. The hyoid is the one bone in the body not connected to any other bone—it is a floating bone. The hyoid’s purpose is to maintain an accessible trachea and provide a bony attachment for the tongue muscles.
  • Sternum and Ribs
    The sternum, or breastbone, is a small, knife-shaped bone situated in the anterior thoracic portion of the skeleton near the midline. The sternum is connected to the ribs by thin cartilage bands called costal cartilage.
  • Column with Vertebrae
    The vertebral column of the human body is composed of twenty-six vertebrae. Each vertebra is called by the first letter of its area and superior-inferior axis location except for the sacrum and coccyx.

Structure and Functions of Skin Organs

The skin is the body’s primary tissue, covering a region of about 20 square feet. The skin defends us from bacteria and the elements, aids in temperature regulation, and provides tactile, thermal, and cold stimuli.

The skin is composed of three layers:

  1. The epidermis, the outermost layer of skin, acts as a waterproof shield and determines the colour of our skin.
  2. The dermis, which lies under the epidermis, is a dense connective tissue that includes hair follicles and sweat glands.
  3. Subcutaneous fat and connective tissue comprise the broader subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis).

The pigment melanin is produced by special cells called melanocytes, which give the skin its colour. The epidermis contains melanocytes.

Human physiology consists of the following:

Respiratory System

The human body’s cells need a steady supply of oxygen to survive. The respiratory system supplies oxygen to the body’s cells when eliminating carbon dioxide, a waste product that may be fatal if left to build up.

The mechanism of breathing is composed of three main components: the airway, the lungs, and the respiration muscles.

  • The airway, which comprises the nose, throat, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, is responsible for transporting air between the lungs and the body’s exterior.
  • The lungs act as the respiratory system’s functional components, supplying oxygen to the body and removing carbon dioxide.
  • Finally, the respiratory muscles, which include the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, function in concert to serve as a piston, moving air into and out of the lungs with each intake.


Thermoregulation is a process by which mammals self-regulate their body temperature in response to external temperatures. Temperature control is a form of homeostasis and a mechanism for maintaining a constant internal temperature necessary for survival.

While the core body temperature is closely regulated within a limited range, minor variations in heat production and core body temperature occur daily due to circadian rhythm and menstruation factors. When an individual is unable to control his or her body temperature, a variety of pathologies arise. The human body maintains core temperature by four distinct mechanisms: vaporization, radiation, convection, and conduction.

In this chapter, we learned about the different anatomies and physiologies of the human body. This knowledge can be further used to assess the health and nutrition of the human body.

  1. How is human anatomy defined?
    Human anatomy is the analysis of the human body’s systems.
  2. What are the anatomical components of the human body?
    The head, spine, torso, arms, and legs are the main components of the human body.
  3. What is the term for the examination of the human body?
    Physiology is the science of the human body’s functioning.
  4. What is the proper term for human body parts?
    The human body comprises a head, spine, torso, two arms, two legs, and male and female genitals.
  5. Which organ is the biggest in the human body?
    The skin is the biggest organ.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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