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Chapter 4 – Diversity in living organisms / Ecosystems

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Biodiversity is the source of numerous ecosystem services that are essential to human well-being. Human decisions impact biodiversity – even the decision you make not to throw the plastic bottle on the road. There are many varieties of organisms in the ecosystem, including land, coastal, and aquatic animals, including inter and within-species variety.

Ecosystems are diverse in the human-controlled setting. Biodiversity is an essential cornerstone of environmental resources. There is no aspect on Earth more creative, diverse, and rich with life than living organism ecosystems.

An ecosystem is a geographical environment where plants, livestock, and other species and weather and atmosphere interact to form a living bubble. Ecosystems include biotic and abiotic factors, or living and nonliving components; plants, birds, and other species are examples of biotic causes, while rocks, temperature, and humidity are examples of abiotic influences.

Any element in an environment, whether directly or indirectly, is dependent on the others. A shift in the temperature of an environment, for example, may affect the plants that live there. Animals who depend on plants for food and shelter would either have to respond to the changes or migrate to a different ecosystem.

Photosynthesis, the basic chemical process that powers most life on Earth, is one of the most important relationships between the biotic and abiotic systems in an ecosystem. Photosynthesis is how plants and algae convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into the energy they use to develop and survive. Photosynthesis produces oxygen, which is essential for animals to breathe.

Plants and algae often consume essential vitamins and minerals from their surroundings to survive. Animals consume vitamins and minerals from plants and algae. Predators feed on other species to gain nutrition and nutrients. It is how nutrients make their way from the abiotic to the biotic world.

The five-kingdom system is the most widely used system for classifying living things based on basic distinctive features. As new knowledge becomes accessible, classification methods are constantly evolving. Modern developments, such as genetics, allow for greater and greater decipherment of evolutionary relationships. Robert H. Whittaker created the five-kingdom scheme in 1969, based on the studies by previous biologists such as Carolus Linnaeus.

There are five main kingdoms in which living beings may be classified:

  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Monera (Bacteria)

Bacterial behaviour is fundamental to the environment, both on land and in the sea. Their constant labour completes the cycling of nutrients such as biomass, nitrogen, and sulfur.

If it weren’t for the operation of decomposers, the organic carbon in the form of deceased and decaying bodies would rapidly deplete the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It does not seem like a big deal to you, but consider that plants will be unable to photosynthesise and produce food without carbon dioxide. When animals die, the carbon in their tissues is no longer accessible to any other living beings. One of the essential functions of bacteria is decomposition, which involves the dissolution of these species and releasing nutrients back into the atmosphere.

Another essential function of bacteria is nitrogen cycling. Plants depend on nitrogen from the soil for their health and development, and they can’t get it from the atmosphere’s gaseous nitrogen. Nitrogen is mostly made accessible to them by nitrogen fixation from bacteria such as Rhizobium.

In human existence, fungi play a significant role. They are essential in medicine; after all, they provide antibiotics in agriculture because they preserve soil productivity, and in many industries, they are consumed as food.

  1. Fungi are essential to humans on a variety of occasions and play a vital role in the ecosystem’s nitrogen cycle. They’re also pesticides.
  2. Animal parasites are fungi. As a result, they aid in insect species management. These fungi do not infect plants and poultry. They target those species in particular. The fungus Beauveria bassiana is being used as a pesticide to combat the invasion of the emerald ash borer.
  3. The fungi-plant dynamic is critical to crop productivity. Fungal development in farmlands contributes approximately 70% to plant output.
  4. Few fungi are used in the food manufacturing industry, while others are eaten directly.
  5. These microbes, together with bacteria, recycle matter in the soil by decomposing dead plant matter and animal excreta, thus enriching the soil and making it fertile. The lack of fungi’s behaviours may negatively impact this ongoing phase by causing debris to accumulate.

In this chapter, we learned about the diversity in organisms and their importance. We also learned about the economic aspects and the importance of ecosystems.

  1. In an ecosystem, what is diversity?
    Ecosystem diversity refers to the range of species, populations, and ecological processes included in a given ecosystem.
  2. What effect does diversity have on ecological organisms?
    Ecosystem roles such as efficiency may be influenced by increasing species diversity.
  3. What is the significance of ecosystem diversity?
    Biodiversity is vital because it cleans our water, regulates our environment, and feeds us. The term “ecological diversity” refers to the diversity of both land and marine ecosystems.
  4. What physical features do ecosystems have?
    Temperature, hydrology, physical habitat, and significant physical activities that reshape natural ecosystems are examples of physical characteristics.
  5. Which ecosystem has the greatest variety?
    Tropical habitats have the highest diversity of organisms. Tropical rain forests on land and coral reefs in the sea are two of the world’s most biologically rich habitats.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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