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Chapter 1 – Basic Biology

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Biology is the study of living organisms, their origin, anatomy, morphology, physiology, behaviour and distribution. Advances in technology have given insights into life and its constituents.

Have you ever wondered what the human body is made up of? Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All organisms are made of cells. Organisms may be single cell (unicellular) or made up of several cells (multicellular). We are multicellular organisms. 

The smallest known cells in the world are Mycoplasmas. Cells are the building blocks of all living things. Cells provide structure to the body and convert nutrients taken from food to energy.

They are complex and serve different functions in the body. Cells are of different shapes and sizes, almost like the bricks of the buildings. Our body has cells of varying shapes and sizes – they are the lowest organisation level in all life forms.

Protoplasm is defined as organic and inorganic substances that make up the cell’s living nucleus, cytoplasm, plastid, and mitochondria. The protoplasm is the living part of a cell that is made up of different cellular organelles. It is a jelly-like, colourless, transparent and viscous living substance present within the cell wall.

However, at the microscopic level, all living organisms are made up of the same fundamental unit – the cell.

  • Prokaryotic Cell
    Prokaryotic cells are relatively smaller and much simpler than eukaryotic cells. The other distinguishing trait of prokaryotic cells is that they do not have membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus. Reproduction takes place in a binary fission process.
    Structurally, prokaryotes have a capsule that envelops the whole body and acts as a defensive coat. Pilus is a hair-like appendage present on most prokaryotes’ outer surface, which allows the body to bind itself to different environments.
  • Eukaryotes
    Eukaryotes are more complex and much larger than prokaryotes. They comprise nearly all major kingdoms except the monera kingdom. Structurally, eukaryotes have a cell wall that surrounds and defends the plasma membrane. The cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane which regulates the entrance and exit of certain compounds. Chloroplasts are present only in plant cells and are subcellular sources of photosynthesis.
    The nucleus comprises DNA that is responsible for preserving all genetic material. Eukaryotic cells also contain mitochondria responsible for the generation of energy, which is then used by the cell.

The presence of a nucleus is the basic difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotic cells, the true nucleus is absent, and the membrane-bound organelles are found only in eukaryotic cells. Other main distinctions between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are that prokaryotic cells are exclusively unicellular, while eukaryotic cells are not.

In basic terms, tissue can be described as a group of cells with a similar shape and function, called tissues.

Animal tissues are divided into four types:

  • Connective Tissue: A set of tissues formed by cells divided by a non-living medium called an extracellular matrix.
  • Muscle Tissue: It is engaged in the production of force and the generation of motion, either for locomotion or for other body movements within internal organs.
  • Nervous Tissue: These are the primary brain and spinal cord tissue elements of the central nervous system.
  • Epithelial tissue: It is created by cells that cover the outer sections of the body’s organs and line the organ surfaces, such as the surface of the skin, the reproductive tract, the airways and the inner lining of the digestive tract.

The classification of plant tissues is primarily based on the following two relevant criteria:

  • Based on the various parts of the plants.
  • Based on the various cell types.

Plant Tissues are generally classified into three tissue systems. This classification is based on the parts of the plants they are present in.

  • Epidermis Tissues – cells developed from the outer surface of the leaves.
  • Vascular tissues – involved in the internal transfer of fluids and nutrients.
  • Ground Tissue – involved in the production of nutrients through photosynthesis and the preservation of nutrients.

The plant tissue is classified into two groups. This classification is based on the type of cells that they contain.

  • Meristematic tissues: They are a collection of young cells, consisting of continuously dividing cells and expanding the length and width of the plant.
  • Permanent tissues: A collection of cells that are identical in origin, shape and function. They are engaged in total growth and differentiation during inadequate meristematic activity.

In this chapter, we developed a basic understanding of the cell. We also learned about the types of plant and animal tissues and the primary difference between them.

  1. What is a prokaryotic cell?
    A prokaryotic cell is a primitive type of cell characterised by the lack of a nucleus. Also, prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound cellular organelles. Prokaryotes are unicellular only.
  2. What is a eukaryotic cell?
    Eukaryotic cells are cells that have a real nucleus along with membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotes can be either unicellular or multicellular.
  3. Define cell.
    It is the fundamental physical and structural unit of life.
  4. List the functions of chloroplasts.
    Chloroplasts are plastics used in all plant cells. These cells consist of a photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll and are involved in the synthesis of food through photosynthesis.
  5. Who has discovered cell and cell theory?
    The cell was first discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke, an English natural philosopher. The cell theory was demonstrated in 1830 by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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