# Chapter 2 – Ratio and Proportion

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

You might have come across ratio and proportion in your maths class. The concept is based on fractions. When it is expressed in a:b, then it is called ratio. Proportion states that both the ratios are the same. In other words, the proportion represents the balance of the two parts or the ratios. In easy language, the ratio is the representation that can be utilised to express one amount as a fraction portion of different ones.

The formula for ratio is a: b ⇒ a/b and proportion is a/b = c/d or a : b :: c : d. Just remember them, and half of your work is done.

#### Profit & Loss

In order to ascertain the cost of a commodity on the lookout and figure out a benefit to an organisation, each item has a cost price and a selling price. We can discover the profit acquired or the loss incurred for a particular product in light of such cost estimations.

#### Overhead Expenses

Overhead alludes to a business’s progressing costs, not straightforwardly attributed to making an item or administration. Overhead expenses are expenses to maintain the business, including rent, protection, and utilities. Working costs are needed to maintain the business and can’t be stayed away from. Overhead costs ought to be assessed routinely to increase profit.

#### Discount Tax

You can change the discounted rate over to a decimal and multiply that by the first cost. To ascertain a tax, you can change the rate over to a decimal, duplicating it by the cost. You can multiply the first cost by one or more decimal on the off chance that you need to know the all-out cost, including the tax.

#### Difference Between Simple and Compound Interest

The following are the important differences between simple and compound interest:

 Simple Interest Compound Interest It is based on the principal amount of the loan. It depends on the principal sum and the interest that collects on it in each period. The formula for simple interest is:P × r × nP = Principal amount The formula for compound interest is:P × (1+r) t −PP = Principal amount The growth remains uniform. The growth keeps increasing. The return remains less. The return remains high throughout.

#### Direct and Inverse Variations

When the relation between two values of an object is such that an increase or decrease in one’s value affects the other, this is known as variation. It is of two types:

• Direct Variation
• Inverse Variation

Direct variation implies when one amount changes, the other amount likewise changes to a direct extent. When there is an increase in quantity A, quantity B also increases and vice versa. However, the ratio remains the same. You have to follow the tabular or unitary method to solve direct variation problems.

But in inverse variation, the reverse happens. When there is an increase in quantity A, quantity B decreases and vice versa.

#### Time and Work Problems

Time and work issues manage the synchronous presentation, including the effectiveness of an individual or a gathering and the time taken by them to finish a piece of work.

A specific measure of time (T) is taken to finish a specific work (W). The quantity of units of work done per unit time is known as the pace of work (R). Consequently, Work (W) = Rate (R) Time (T).

The formula for time work is –

Total work = No of days * Efficiency

#### Conclusion

Ratio and proportion are the two significant concepts, and it is the establishment to comprehend the different arithmetic ideas just as in science. It is even used in our everyday life; we utilise the concept of proportion and extent, for example, in business while managing cash or while cooking, and so forth.

#### FAQs

1. How to solve ratios?
To ascertain the sum’s proportion, we divide the sum by the complete number of parts in the ratio and afterwards increase this answer by the first ratio.
2. What is the compounded ratio?
When at least two ratios increase termwise, the ratio thus acquired is called compounded ratio.
3. Give some examples of ratio and proportion in daily life?
Basic examples of ratio and proportion are contrasting costs per ounce while shopping for food, figuring the legitimate sums for fixings in plans, and deciding what amount of time vehicle outing may require. Other fundamental proportions incorporate pi and phi.
4. What are the properties of proportion?
The following are the properties of proportion:

• Each quantity in a proportion is called its term or proportional.
• In four terms, the first and last terms are the extremes, and the second and third terms are the mean.
5. What are basic ratios?
A basic ratio is an examination of two numbers through division. The proportion of a to b is a:b, with b ≠ 0.

At MSVgo, we provide you with easy video lessons to understand the fundamental difference between ratios and proportions and understand them easily. The MSVgo philosophy is to enable a core understanding of any concept. The MSVgo app offers a video library that explains concepts with examples or explanatory visualisations or animations.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electron Beams and Radioactivity
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Adolescent Issues
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Algebra – Quadratic Equations
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Quadrilaterals
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Chemistry in Your Life
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Light, Shadows And Reflections
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Addition
• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time
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