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Chapter 6 – Data Handling

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


In your everyday life, you come across different types of data. This data may refer to your age, exam score, personality traits, weight, etc. All these numbers and figures are easy to interpret if they relate to a particular person at a specific time. However, if there is a large amount of data to be analyzed, you will need to organize it based on particular parameters or goals. Here comes the role of data handling.

Data Handling makes way for simplified collection, arrangement, representation, and interpretation of data. To tackle questions based on data handling, you need to be aware of the topic’s fundamental concepts.

Data Handling is a process of organizing and presenting raw data in a form that can be used for fetching and inferring useful information. This data may comprise numbers, names, facts, or any other kind of description of the given entities. Data is commonly presented through graphs, tables, charts, etc.

Data is generally classified into the following two types:

  •       Qualitative Data
  •       Quantitative Data

Qualitative data denotes the non-countable features and traits of entities that cannot be measured or expressed in numbers. For example, colors, names, etc. On the other hand, quantitative data indicates measurable characteristics like length, width, height, etc. Further, quantitative data can be continuous or discrete. While the continuous data can take any value in the given range, the discrete data can only possess certain fixed values, such as the whole numbers.

Data is classified and tabulated to systematize comparison and utility of the collected information. Once the required data is gathered, it is then classified according to its similarities and dissimilarities. Classification implies the arrangement of data into homogeneous classes or groups based on distinct attributes and variables. The major types of classifications are as follows:

  •       Chronological/ Temporal
  •       Quantitative
  •       Geographical/ Spatial
  •       Qualitative/ Ordinal

After classification, data is displayed and summarized in tabular format. The logical arrangement of data in rows and columns is called data tabulation.

When there is a need to examine a huge bulk of data, it is often grouped in specified ranges or class intervals. In other words, the ungrouped data refers to individual data points, whereas the grouped data is presented in a certain range of classes. The latter is preferably shown through frequency distribution tables, where frequency implies the number of observations for each specific group. The following tables illustrate an example of the frequency distribution of ungrouped and grouped data, respectively:

Marks ObtainedNo. of Students (Frequency)


Marks RangeNo. of Students (Frequency)

The above tables exhibit the marks obtained by 15 students. The ungrouped data is converted into grouped data by categorizing marks in fixed intervals of size 10. It is important to note that the upper limit of a class is not included in that interval. For instance, the students who scored 20 are counted in the interval 20-30 and not in the interval 10-20.

The graphical representation is a diagrammatic organization of the given data. Some of its most popular forms are:

  •   Line Graph
  •   Bar Graph
  •   Pie Chart
  •   Histogram
  •   Pictograph

The representations mentioned above prove effective for any type of numerical data, which is why these are widely used in statistics.

A bar graph is the simplest means to represent any given data. In this, equally spaced bars vary in length/height as per the given variable’s value. Bar graphs can also be used to denote the frequencies of specific data.

The following diagram shows the number of cars that pass through a street X on three different days at particular time intervals:

For instance, 250 cars passed through the street X in the time interval 10-11 am on Saturday.

When a given data is represented in circle graphs or pie charts, each section of the particular chart shows a proportionate quantity of the whole. To draw a pie chart, you need to add data values to arrive at the whole number, which can be used to divide each value into corresponding angles of the circle. For example, in a class of 100, a teacher divided the students based on their favorite colors as follows:

ColorsNo. Of Students
Mud Brown25
Chocolate Brown20

The pie chart for the above data can be drawn as follows:

The above diagram represents one of the simple pie charts with reasonable data, where each percentage value (in decimals) is multiplied by 360° to obtain the angle of the corresponding sectors.

Data handling is essentially based on the fundamental concepts of statistics. It is considered highly useful in different fields of mathematics, science, and engineering. Among various graphical representations, bar graphs and pie charts are the easiest and most popularly used modes of data handling. These prove quite efficient in analyzing prices, stocks, growth rates, and similar forms of data. Hence, it is crucial to understand the above-mentioned topics to make a mark in any professional domain.

  1.    How is data different from information?
    Data is the raw material that is compiled to fulfill a certain purpose. On the other hand, information refers to organized and processed data that is understandable by humans.
  2.     What are the various ways to collect data?
    Data can be collected through surveys, questionnaires, polls, interviews, research, experiments, observations, etc.
  1.     What are the advantages of graphical representation?
    Graphical representation of data makes the given information understandable for a common man. Besides, it saves time and resources needed to utilize the data.
  1.     What is the use of data handling in the real world?
    Data handling helps in maintaining records like population count, household incomes, etc. It is also used to make predictions in the financial and business world.
  1.     What is the ideal number of classes for a grouped data?
    While there is no standard rule for the number of class intervals, most of the data is grouped into 5-15 classes.

To gain an in-depth knowledge of data handling with intuitive examples and illustrations, refer to the video library of the MSVgo app. Explore an unending list of learning videos to clarify all your doubts.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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