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Chapter 8 – Water

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Water is a colourless, translucent organic material that makes up most of the earth’s ponds, seas, and lakes. It is crucial for the existence of life on earth. H2O is the molecular formula for water. It is formed by covalent bonds that hold two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom together. This liquid takes up 71 percent of the earth’s surface.

Since it can dissolve more liquids than any other material, water is regarded as the “universal solvent.” Water is important for all living beings. It transports essential chemicals, minerals, and nutrients when it moves through the air, the sea, or our bodies. 

The chemical structure and physical properties of water make it a good solvent. The oxygen and hydrogen atoms in water molecules are structured in a polar configuration, with one side (hydrogen) providing a positive electrical charge and the other side (oxygen), a negative charge. This enables the water molecule to attract a wide range of other molecules.

A suspension is a heterogeneous fluid in which rigid particles are distributed in the liquid but do not dissolve. A suspension is a homogeneous mixture of particles with a diameter larger than 1000 nm and apparent to the naked eye. Many of the elements perfectly combine with this kind of combination, and the particles can be seen under a microscope. A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture comprising solid particles large enough to enable sedimentation.

Colloids are described as a mixture in which one of the substances is broken down into tiny particles scattered in a second material. Colloidal particles are the tiniest particles. On the other hand, colloids are simple solutions of solute particle sizes varying from 1nm to 1000nm. They are naturally heterogeneous.

A set number of molecules in one formula of a unit of salt is referred to as crystallization water. Hydrates are crystal salts that absorb water during the crystallization process. Water crystallization is also known as crystallization water or hydration water. The formation of purified crystals from an aqueous solution causes the water to crystallize. Contaminants are not present in these crystals. The heat has a strong effect on these crystals.

Hydrous compounds are chemical compounds that include water molecules as a constituent of their form. Organic substances with no water molecules in their form are known as anhydrous compounds. This is the key distinction between hydrous and anhydrous substances. Hydrates are a type of hydrous compound. Anhydrates are a type of anhydrous compound. 

The word “hydrous” refers to a material where water is a constituent. The water here applies to the crystallization water. Since these compounds cannot crystallize without water, water may be trapped within the crystal lattice of substances during crystallization. 

The word “anhydrous” refers to a material that does not produce water as a constituent. It refers to a compound devoid of liquids. They are called anhydrous compounds. Different methods may be used to extract anhydrous compounds. Based on the form of substance, the extraction methods vary. The colours and chemical properties of certain anhydrous substances differ from those of their hydrous counterparts.

The disadvantages of using hard water are:

  • Disposal of soap 
  • Fuel wastage 
  • Scale formation on metallic boilers

When salt is combined with water, it dissolves since the water’s covalent bonds are stronger than the salt molecules’ ionic bonds.

Salt dissolves in water at the molecular level due to electrical charges. All water and salt substances are polar molecules with positive and negative charges on opposite sides. The ionic bonds of salt compounds are so named because both the chloride and sodium ions have an electrical charge—the chloride ion is negatively charged, whereas the sodium ion is positively charged. A water molecule is also ionic, but the bond is considered covalent since two hydrogen atoms exist with their positive charges on one side of the oxygen atom, which negatively charges. 

The negatively charged chloride ions attract the positively charged water molecules, while the positively charged sodium ions attract the negatively charged water molecules. The ionic bond that held the sodium and chloride ions are broken as water molecules force them apart. The sodium and chloride atoms are surrounded by water molecules after the salt compounds separate. The salt dissolves at this stage, resulting in a homogeneous solution.

In this chapter, we learned about water and its properties. We can use this knowledge to differentiate between unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated compounds.

  1. What makes a water molecule?
    A water molecule comprises three atoms: an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms magnetized together. Atoms are made up of matter with a nucleus in the centre.
  2. What is the mass of a water molecule?
    A molecule’s weight is measured by the atomic masses of the atoms forming it. This translates to a mass of 18 g/mol.
  3. In what states (phases) does water exist?
    There are three phases of water: solid, liquid, and gaseous.
  4. What is the definition of hard water?
    Hard water has more minerals than normal water.
  5. What are the differences in physical and chemical properties?
    Physical characteristics of a material refer to the appearance of the substance. Chemical properties are properties commonly used in chemistry to characterize a substance’s state.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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