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Chapter 5 – Health And Hygiene

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

For a better living, maintaining health and hygiene is highly crucial. To increase awareness among people worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) had declared 07 April as ‘World Health day.’ From its inception in 1948, WHO has taken a keen interest in promoting healthy living, vaccination and immunisation, and various other awareness. 

According to WHO, health is a complete state of mental, social, and physical well-being. A person cannot be called healthy only because of the absence of diseases. For sound mental and physical health, proper hygiene is essential.

There are various processes involved in maintaining a healthy lifestyle:

  • Daily exercise- For maintaining proper health, an individual should always spend a good amount of time for exercise. Proper implementation of various exercises is one prime method of preventing diseases in general. Regular exercise, along with proper sleep, can help a person stay fit and healthy.
  • Proper diet- For maintaining a healthy life, one should invest in a proper and balanced diet. Avoid junk and foods with high cholesterol. Always have fresh fruits and opt for green vegetables for a balanced diet. With the proper amount of exercise and a balanced diet, an individual can attain a healthy lifestyle.
  • Personal hygiene- The name itself is explanatory. Health and hygiene are always interconnected. You can spend a good amount of time exercising and having a balanced diet intake, but if you live in an unhygienic condition, all your efforts will go in vain. Maintaining personal hygiene, proper disposal of waste, and maintaining a clean surrounding around you would finally add icing on the cake of healthy living.

In the previous part, you have been introduced to leading a healthy lifestyle. For maintaining a healthy lifestyle, you need to maintain proper hygiene. Maintaining proper hygiene is a prime method of preventing disease in general. There are two broad categories of maintaining hygiene. 

  • Personal hygiene– Before looking at the surrounding, maintain your proper hygiene. There are various processes by which you can maintain personal hygiene. You can even advise your known people to follow such hygiene for a healthy living.
      • You should always clean your hands before eating. This is the basic and most crucial personal hygiene.
      • You should maintain regular toilet habits. That helps in the removal of waste from your body and leading to a healthy lifestyle.
      • You should brush your teeth twice daily- once after getting up in the morning and again before going to sleep. This increases the stamina of your teeth and can fight germs for a longer time.
      • You should bathe daily. We move around different places and come in contact with various impurities, which can make us fall ill. To avoid it, you should bathe daily.
      • You should always avoid smoking and drinking. There are various harmful effects of tobacco and alcohol, which would lead to spoiling your health. So, avoid it at any cost.
      • Always avoid drinking unfiltered water. It contains various impurities which would make you sick. So, drink lots of clean water daily to stay healthy. Always cook in clean utensils and keep your food covered. 
      • Do not wear dirty clothes. Always change your clothes daily. Fresh clothes reduce the chance of you getting in touch with various impurities present in your dirty clothes.
      • Always have first aid in your house. Whenever you are injured, you can use it to protect your wound from various infections.

 

  • Community hygiene– After personal hygiene, the surrounding environment should be kept hygienic and clean for a healthy lifestyle. There are various processes involved in maintaining community hygiene.
    1. You should dispose of the garbage in your house properly and regularly. Keep your garbage bins closed. Follow instructions for proper disposal of garbage in proper bins, which can be processed further. Accumulation of waste in your house can lead to various diseases.
    2. The management should clean the roads and streets properly so that people do not get affected by the dust and other impurities present on the road. The garbage bins on the roads should be cleaned regularly. 
    3. There should not be collected water in your surroundings, which would help prevent various diseases. Regular spraying of insecticides to ward off insects from your surroundings should be conducted.

There are various factors involved by which you can fall ill. The human body is exposed to various environmental, psychological, and physiological factors which could disturb the normal functioning of your body. Your health and hygiene go for a toss when diseases hit you. There are broadly two kinds of diseases.

  • Infectious disease- These are caused by various fungi, bacteria, worms, protozoa, etc. These enter the human body and cause various infectious diseases. There are various kinds of infectious diseases:
    • Viral diseases- Some common diseases like the common cold, flu, AIDS is spread through viruses and are highly infectious. 
    • Bacterial diseases- Some diseases are caused because of various bacteria. The diseases are Cholera, typhoid, etc. 
    • Fungal disease- The diseases caused because of fungi are very infectious and cause harm to many people. An infection like ringworm can affect your skin, nails, and scalp and is spread due to direct contact.

Non-Infectious disease- Many diseases are not infectious but can affect your health seriously. Diseases like heart problems, diabetes, and blood sugar do not spread like previous ones but can seriously affect a community. Lung disease is another example of it, which is caused because of the harmful effects of consuming tobacco.

This is the ability to fight against various diseases. There are many kinds of immunity.

  • Innate immunity- The immunity resent inside your body from birth helps fight against various common diseases. Certain examples are skin, bile juice in the stomach, the respiratory tract’s lining, and gastrointestinal lining.
  • Acquired immunity- As the name suggests, this immunity is achieved after birth through diseases or vaccinations. The antigens developed during disease acts as immunity in the future.
  • Vaccines- Vaccinations and immunisations help resist various diseases and help create herd immunity in the community.

For a peaceful living, health and hygiene go hand in hand. There are different processes to maintain a healthy life, and to do that, follow proper hygiene processes. You can contract various kinds of disease, for which you need to develop immunity naturally or through artificial processes.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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