# Chapter 7 – Electricity & Magnetism

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

You must wonder sometimes how electrical appliances work and how light is generated. Electricity and magnetism are one of the most interesting subjects in physics. We will talk about magnetism and electricity and the interaction that exists between them. We will also learn interesting topics related to them, such as the electricity test for a magnet, electron motion, conductors, semiconductor and insulators, magnetic fields, etc.

#### Definition of electricity

Electricity is the existence and movement of the charged particles. How does electricity flow through copper wire and space? What is the electrical current, the electromotive power, and what makes the landing light turn on or the hydraulic pump engine run? All of these issues include an awareness of a number of fundamental concepts. By applying one simple concept to the other basic ideas, most of the important and realistic questions concerning electricity or electronics can be answered. Our interpretation of electrical current must begin with the essence of the matter. Everything matter is made up of molecules. Both molecules are made up of ions, made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons.

#### Electricity Test For A Magnet

How does magnetic effect work?

Let’s start with an exercise, you can do this at home with materials you can find around you. You will need:

• A battery cell
• Insulated wire 10cm long
• Electrical tape
• A good neodymium magnet
• Pen and paper to note your observation
1. Get the insulated wire, strip off the insulation for around 1 cm on either side.
2. Connect one end of the wire to the positive terminal of the battery and, if possible, use the electrical tape.
3. Place a good neodymium magnet under the wire, do not connect the wire and take note of your findings.
4. Now link the free end of the wire to the negative terminal and see what happens.
5. Now leave the wire where it is and adjust the terminals of the battery. Note down your observations.

Inference:  It is observed that the wire bends as the current flows through it, and when the polarities are reversed, the wire bends in the same direction.

#### Symbolic Representation Of Electrical Components

Each part and product of the electrical circuit includes a symbol. The symbols represent the circuit parts in the circuit diagram. Below are the fundamental set of symbols used in the circuit diagram.

• Electric cell (dry cell): The electrical cell, also known as a dry cell, is the main component of the electrical circuit. This provides our electrical energy tools and devices for working. The cells have both a positive and a negative terminal. This is represented in the electrical circuit as two parallel lines of unequal length. The longer line is the positive end and the shorter line is the negative terminal. In simple words, a battery is a collection of cells put together.
• Electric bulb: The electrical bulb is a component of the electrical circuit that works with the electrical energy of the cell. In this case, the bulb uses the electrons to heat the filament in the bulb and to create light.
• Electrical switches: In order for the electrical circuit to operate, the electricity must flow and be continuous. If there is a discontinuity in the electrical circuit, no work is necessary.
• Electrical wiring: Electrical wiring consists of thin conductive wires that allow electrons to pass from one component to another and complete the circuit.

#### Good And Bad Conductors Of Electricity

If you want to define the meaning of electrical conductors in the simplest way, they are materials that make it easy for electricity to flow through them. If we compare two types of material, and the first allows for a better flow of electricity through it, then the material is said to be a good conductor of electricity.

The electrical conductor allows the electrical charges to flow through them easily. Thus, in simple words, it can be said that electric current is a flow of charge. Conductivity is the characteristic of conductors to “conduct” electricity. Such materials offer little opposition or “resistance” to the flow of fees. The use of materials allows easy transfer of charges due to the free movement of es through them.

In general, non-metals are bad conductors or insulators. On the other hand, metals are good conductors. The poor conductor has very few numbers of free electrons and would have a high resistance to the electrical current movement. Materials such as rubber, glass, wood, etc. are poor conductors. Thus, bad conductors can be said Resistors As Components That Oppose The Flow Of Current.

#### Conclusion

In this chapter, we learned about the concept of electricity and magnetism. We learned about the electricity test in the presence of a magnetic field. We also talked about the symbols used in an electrical circuit, the concept of good and bad conductors of electricity and Battery As A Collection Of Cells Con.

#### FAQs

1. What is a good and bad conductor of electricity?
A material that allows electricity to flow through easily is called a conductor. Metals, especially silver, are good electrical conductors. Materials such as glass and rubber are weak electrical conductors and are considered insulators.
2. Why is metal the weak conductor of electricity?
Tungsten and Bismuth are metals that are bad conductors of electricity. There are several metals, but some of them include Aluminum, Bismuth, Gallium, Indium, Lead, Thallium, Tin, Ununhexium, Ununpentium, Ununquadium, and Ununtrium.
3. What is the unit used for the magnetic field?
The magnetic field is defined as B and H. The SI unit H is amperes per metre and the SI unit B is Newtons per metre per ampere or teslas.
4. What is Faraday’s law of electromagnetism?
Faraday’s electromagnetism law describes how the magnetic field and the electrical charge combine to form the EMF (electromotive force).
5. Why are copper wires used as connecting wires?
Copper wires are used as connecting wires because they provide low resistance to the electron flow.

At MSVgo, we offer you 6,000+ science video lessons to learn about the concept of electricity and magnetism

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time