# Chapter 12 – Data Handling

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

In statistics, the term “data handling” refers to a principle that protects the privacy of research data by addressing issues such as protection, confidentiality, and research data protection. This provides details in the form of numerical figures. This type of statistic is referred to as an observation. Data is the term used to describe the compilation of all observations. Statisticians use a variety of data collection techniques to deal with the data.

#### What is the Concept of Data Handling?

Data handling entails gathering a collection of data and displaying it in a new format. A list of numerical figures that reflects a certain type of information is referred to as data. The raw data is a list of measurements that are collected at the start. Every kind of data may be used. Words, figures, ratios, explanations, and observations are all possibilities. During and after the review phase, data handling is the process of ensuring that study data is collected, archived, or disposed of securely.

#### Types of Data

Depending on the types of data, different data handling methods may be used. The data is divided into two categories:

• Qualitative data
• Quantitative data

Quantitative data provides empirical statistics for something, while qualitative data provides descriptive information. The quantitative data is further classified into two categories here. There are two types of data: discrete and continuous. Only specific values, such as whole numbers, are allowed in discrete results. The continuous data will take any value that falls within the given range.

Quantitative data is the category of data, the significance of which is calculated in the form of numbers or counts, with a particular numerical value associated with each data collection. Quantitative data, also known as numerical data, further explains numeric variables.

#### Mean, Median, and Mode

The three indicators of central tendency are the mean, median, and mode. The arithmetic average of a data set is called the mean. This is calculated by multiplying the number of measurements in a data set by the sum total of the data set numbers. When numbers are classified in ascending or descending order, the median is the number in the centre. The range is the contrast between the highest and lowest values in a data collection, and the mode is the value that appears the most often.

Mean
The “average” amount is calculated by multiplying all data points by the number of data points.

Median
The middle number is determined by sorting all of the data points and selecting the one in the middle (or two middle numbers, taking the mean of those two numbers).

Mode
The most occurring number—that is, the number that appears the most often.

#### Mode of Ungrouped Data

The most common occurrence of ungrouped data is equivalent to the data’s mode. More than one mode may exist in data.

Unimodal data distributions have just one mode value, while multimodal data distributions have several mode values.

Example:

Find the mode of the marks given below:

2, 3, 5, 6, 2, 4, 7, 8, 8, 7, 6, 8, 9, 2, 3, 6, 2, 3, 2, 4, 5, 7, 2, 5, 3, 2

Solution:

Arrange the data in ascending order:

2, 2 ,2 ,2 ,2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 8, 8, 9

Therefore, mode: 2

#### Data Representation Using a Bar Graph

Numbers, images, charts, graphics, and other data types will all be used to display data. Bar graphs are the most popular method of graphical representation of results. A bar graph, also known as a bar map, depicts a graphic interpretation of data using vertical or horizontal rectangular bars of similar width that are evenly spaced concerning one another and whose distances are relative to the data to be displayed.

Example:
The performance of your friend in the first term and the second term is given. Draw a double bar graph choosing the appropriate scale and answer the following:

 Subject English Hindi Maths Science Social Science 1st Term (M.M. 100) 67 72 88 81 73 2nd Term (M.M. 100) 70 65 95 85 75
1. In which subject has your friend improved his performance the most?
2. In which subject is the improvement the least?
3. Has the performance gone down in any subject?

Solution:

1. By observing the double bar graph, there was an increase in the Maths subject. So, the friend has improved his performance in Maths.
2. By observing the double bar graph, the improvement was the least in Social Science.
3. By observing the double bar graph, the performance in Hindi has gone down.

#### Conclusion

In this chapter, we learned about the basics of data handling. We learned about the Probability Handling of Raw Data and many more concepts.

#### FAQs

1. What are the various forms of data handling?
Data handling types:

• Graph with bars
• Pictograph
• Graph with a line

2. In data handling, what is a mode?
In data collection, the mode is the value that occurs the most often.
3. What role does data analysis play in our everyday lives?
To keep track of books in libraries.
And keep track of the river’s water levels.
4. How many different kinds of data are there?
Nominal, ordinal, discrete, and continuous data are the four types of data.
5. What is the data handling median?
The median is the point in a data set that is in the centre.

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### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
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• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
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• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
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• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
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• Chemical Equilibria
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• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
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• Electrochemistry
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• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
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• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
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### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
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• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
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• Biological Classification
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• Biotechnology and its Applications
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• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
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• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
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• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
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• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
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• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
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• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time