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Chapter 3 – Elements, Compounds and Mixtures (Experimental Techniques)

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Chemistry is the science of material substances’ frameworks, physical properties, and chemical properties. It is essential to recognise that all gases, liquids, and solids are not created equal. In terms of structure, they are all special; this is why the matter’s classification is so crucial.

If two or more elements mix chemically in a defined mass ratio, the effect is known as a compound. Compounds are compounds made up of two or three distinct kinds of elements in a fixed proportion of atoms. As elements merge, any of the elements’ individual properties are destroyed, and the newly created compound has new properties. 

Chemical Formula: Chemical formulas are used to describe compounds. A chemical formula is a description of the atom quantities that make up a certain chemical compound. 

The chemical formula of water is H2O, indicating that two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom have joined to create one molecule of H2O. The molecular formula for popular salt is NaCl, which indicates that one molecule of NaCl is made up of one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine.

There are two forms of compounds—molecular compounds and salts. Covalent bonds are used to tie atoms together in molecular compounds. It is bound together in salts by ionic bonds. These are the two kinds of bonds that a compound contains.

Elements may be described as a collection of atoms with the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. While the atoms of an element contain the same number of protons, they may have varying amounts of neutrons, and hence different weights. 

Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have differing amounts of neutrons. There are currently 118 components, with the first 94 being naturally occurring and the other 24 being synthetic. 

Elements are chemical compounds that correspond to a particular spot on the current periodic table. Elements are made up of just one form of an atom. They can live as atoms or molecules and cannot be broken down into smaller pieces. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) assigns symbols to elements. For example, the letters O and Al stand for oxygen and aluminium, respectively.

The elements are grouped in the periodic table and categorised as metallic or non-metallic based on their classes. Metals are grouped into three categories: core group metals, transition metals, and f-block metals. These are further subdivided based on their characteristics.

The resultant compound is known as a ‘Mixture’ in chemistry when two or more compounds combine without undergoing a chemical alteration. 

The product of combining compounds does not compromise its identity, and they are not chemically mixed. Chemical substances such as atoms and chemicals are mechanically blended or mixed to produce mixtures.

Below are some of the more important techniques for distinguishing substances or mixtures: 

  • Handpicking
    This approach entails manually sorting out all of the undesirable compounds and extracting them from the useful ones. One of the separated substances may be an impurity that needs to be discarded or that both separated substances are useful.
  • Threshing
    This process is most often used during crop harvesting. Wheat stalks are typically dried after they are harvested. By pounding the dry stalks to shake off the dried seeds, the grain is removed from the stalks and ground onto the earth.
  • Sieving
    It is used to isolate mixtures of often different-sized ingredients. The mixture is filtered into the sieve’s pores. All of the smaller compounds move through quickly, but the mixture’s larger elements remain kept.
  • Evaporation
    Evaporation is a method for extracting a mixture, typically a liquid and a soluble solid solution. The solution is heated until the organic solvent evaporates, converting into a gas and largely leaving the firm residue behind.
  • Distillation
    Distillation is used where a combination comprises two or more pure liquids. A liquid mixture’s components are vaporised, diluted, and then separated here. As the mixture is heated, the volatile portion vaporises first. The vapour is deposited in a liquid condition by going through a condenser.

Isolating, sorting, and purifying chemical substances is one of the most essential and time-consuming activities in chemistry. Some important and relevant techniques of separation are:

  • Extraction 
  • Distillation 
  • Chromatography

In this chapter, we learned about the basics of elements, compounds and mixtures. We learned about the separation techniques and their types.

  1. What are the most important characteristics of mixtures?
    A mixture’s individual components maintain their initial physical and chemical properties. Separating the individual components of a mixture is often normally easy. Finally, the components’ proportions vary in the mixture.
  2. Give an example of a mixture.
    Soil, saline solution, certain alloys, and bitumen are all made from homogeneous mixtures. Heterogeneous mixtures include sand, oil and water, and chicken noodle soup.

  3. Is a pure material called an element?
    An element is a common material that cannot be separated into separate forms. Compounds such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, silver, and iron are examples of elements. Each element is made up of just one atom type.
  4. What is the distinction between an atom element compound and a mixture?
    A single molecule has the same number of protons and electrons, and most atoms have at least as many neutrons as protons. An ingredient is a substance made entirely of one kind of atom. A composite is a substance made up of two or more chemically related components.
  5. What is a compound example?
    A compound is a substance made up of two or more separate substances. Compounds include things like water, carbon dioxide, and table salt.

At MSVgo, we have created a vast library of video lessons to learn and understand the essential features of Elements Compounds and Mixtures.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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