Syllabus covered in the MSVgo app

Download MSVgo app now!

Chapter 2 – Kingdom Classification

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Classification is the process of grouping species into categories or collections based on similarities and differences. It allows learning a wide spectrum of species in a much simpler and comprehensive manner.

The Five-Kingdom grouping was introduced by R.H. Whittaker in 1969. Certain characteristics, such as mode of diet, thallus arrangement, cell composition, phylogenetic relationships, and reproduction, were used to classify the species. Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia are the five kingdoms classified in this way.

The following kingdoms are included in the Five-Kingdom grouping of living organisms:

Bacteria are classified as members of the Monera Kingdom. 


They have the following significant characteristics: 

  • Bacteria are small species that can be located nearly anywhere. 
  • They are prokaryotic and have a cell wall. 
  • Amino acids and polysaccharides make up the cell shell. 
  • Bacteria can thrive in both heterotrophic and autotrophic conditions. 
  • The bacteria that reside in heterotrophic ecosystems may be parasitic or saprophytic.
  • Chemosynthetic or photosynthetic autotrophic bacteria are both possible.

Algae, amoebas, euglena, paramecia are classified as members of the Protista kingdom.


The following are some of the most significant characteristics of Protista

  • They are eukaryotic and unicellular creatures. 
  • For mobility, some of them have cilia or flagella. 
  • Cell fusion and zygote development are used in sexual reproduction.

Moulds, mushrooms, yeast, and other fungi are also members of the Fungi kingdom. They have a broad number of uses in both domestic and industrial environments. 


  • The spores, with the exception of yeast, are filamentous (single-celled). 
  • Hyphae are slender, long thread-like structures that make up their figure. 
  • Mycelium refers to the network of hyphae
  • Unbroken channels jam-packed with multinucleated cytoplasm make up some of the hyphae. Coenocytic hyphae are the names given to certain hyphae. 
  • The other kind of hyphae has septae or cross-walls. 
  • Polysaccharides and chitin make up the cell wall of fungi. 
  • The majority of the fungi are heterotrophic saprophytes.
  • Any fungi live as symbionts with other species. Any of them are parasitic. Any symbiont fungi, such as lichens, survive in contact with algae. As mycorrhiza, certain symbiont fungi exist in contact with the roots of higher plants.


  • Both eukaryotes with chloroplasts belong to the kingdom Plantae
  • The majority of them are autotrophic, although some are still heterotrophic. 
  • Cellulose makes up most of the cell wall. 
  • Plants go through two stages in their life cycle. These processes are in a back-and-forth relationship. The saprophytic phase is diploid, while the gametophytic phase is haploid. The lengths of the diploid and haploid phases differ between different plant species. This process is known as the alternation of generation.


  • This kingdom includes all heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes that lack a cell wall. 
  • Plants provide food to livestock, either directly or indirectly. Their feeding style is holozoic. The holozoic diet entails ingesting food and only digesting it with the help of an internal cavity. 
  • Many of the species are capable of moving. 
  • They replicate by sexual reproduction.

Vertebrates are creatures with a vertebral column and/or a notochord at some time during their existence. 

Vertebrates’ Characteristics 

A vertebrate is an animal that, at some stage in its life, exhibits any of the following characteristics: 

  • The vertebral column and/or the notochord are two rigid rods that extend the animal’s length. 
  • As a fetus, humans and all other vertebrates have a notochord, which grows into the vertebral column. 
  • The alimentary canal is situated underneath the vertebral column (spinal cord), and a bundle of nerves extends above it. 
  • The mouth of the animal can be found in the front or just below it. 
  • The anus, which opens to the outside, is where the alimentary canal stops. After the anus, the tail extends.

Invertebrates are species that lack a vertebral column, which is derived from the notochord. Apart from the Vertebrata subphylum, all species fall under this category. 

Animals without a backbone are known as invertebrates. Of the approximate 15-30 million animal organisms, invertebrates account for more than 90% of the number. Invertebrates can be found almost everywhere. They have been discovered in the driest of deserts, the upper atmosphere, and the canopy of the wettest rainforests. They can also be found in the frozen Antarctic or under the ocean’s lowest depths.


Let’s learn about the traits of invertebrates now that you know what they are. 

  • Invertebrates don’t have a spinal cord or a vertebral column; instead, they have an exoskeleton that protects their whole body. 
  • These are typically small and do not expand to be very large. 
  • They don’t have lungs, and they breathe through their clothes. 
  • Invertebrates are heterotrophic and cannot grow their own food. 
  • Fission of gametes happens during reproduction.

In this chapter, we learned about the classification of kingdoms. We studied the characteristics of each kingdom, as well.

  1. What is the concept of classification?
    The arrangement of plants and animals in taxonomic classes based on observed similarities and variations is known as classification.
  2. What is kingdom classification? And how does it work?
    In taxonomy, kingdom classification is the highest degree of classification into which species are categorised. It has a higher rank than the phylum.

  3. What is the classification of the two kingdoms?
    Carolus Linnaeus suggested the two-kingdom grouping. He listed living species based on their diet and mobility. Kingdom Plantae and Kingdom Animalia were used to categorise living beings. 
  4. What is the reason for the five-kingdom grouping of living organisms?
    Based on features such as cell arrangement, mode of feeding, mode of reproduction, and body organisation, living species are grouped into five kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, and Monera
  5. What is the fundamental classification unit?
    The fundamental unit of classification is the species. Organisms belonging to the same family have similar traits and will breed with each other to create fertile offspring.

To learn more about Kingdom Classification through simple, interactive, and explanatory visualisations, get the MSVgo app.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
Please switch to portrait mode
for the best experience.
Click to open Popup