# Chapter 1 – Physical Quantities and Measurement

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Take a minute to calculate the number of minutes in a day or to measure your height. Now think of your favourite food and imagine how happy it makes you. The difference between these two scenarios is that the formal situation has an answer in numbers, but happiness is not expressed in numbers. Parameters such as length, time, temperature, area, and mass are physical. Hence, these quantities can be measured using various units.

Centuries ago, when different countries used different units of measurement, trade suffered. Nowadays, a unified system is being followed all around the world for ease of measurement and conversion. This unified system is known as the International System of Units or abbreviated as SI units. It was established to ensure uniformity among countries, and it is an internationally agreed metric system (measurement system).

The physical quantities of measurement are expressed in the following systems based on their use. The three systems are:

1. SI units: Measurement of length is in meters, mass is in kilograms, and time is in seconds. It is universally-followed.
2. CGS units: Measurements of length are in centimetres, mass is in grams, and time is in seconds.
3. FPS units: Measurements of length are in a foot, mass is in pounds, and time is in seconds.

The number represents the quantity whereas, the unit represents the measurement. Let us look at some physical quantities of measurement to obtain some clarity.

#### Measurement of length

Length is a measurement used to calculate the distance between two objects or two points within an object. For example, the distance between the ends of a tennis court or the height of your body. Distances are measured in centimetres, metres, kilometres, miles, inches, feet etc. SI unit of length is in metres.

Measurement of length is done using scales for straight lines, threads for curved lines, callipers for diameters. The multiples of length and their submultiples are mentioned below:

• 1metre (m) = 10 decametres (dam)
• 1 m = 100 centimetres (cm)
• 1000 m = 1 kilometre (km)

#### Measurement of time

Time is a physical quantity to measure the passage of duration. The difference between the start and end of an event is known as duration. For example, the difference between the afternoon and midnight is 12 hours. This duration is calculated as time.

Measurement of time is done using watches and clocks. Earlier, the sun’s direction, phases of the moon, light and shadow were used to measure the passage of time. The SI unit of time is in seconds(s). Few multiples of time are mentioned below:

• 1 year = 365 days
• 1 year = 12 months
• 1 week = 7 days
• 1 day = 24 hours
• 1 hour = 60 minutes
• 1 minute = 60 seconds

#### Measurement of mass

The mass of an object is the amount of matter present in a body. The SI unit of mass is a kilogram. Few other units of mass are gram, pound, ounce, and milligram. The measurement of mass is traditionally performed using scales and balances. A beam scale compares the mass of the object with a standard mass, whereas a spring scale measures the object’s distance. When an object is under the influence of gravity, it is called weight. Hence, we usually measure the weight of the objects. The conversions of units of mass are as follows:

• 1000 gram (g) = 1 Kilogram (kg)
• 1 g = 100 milligrams (mg)
• 1 pound = 453.59 g

#### Measurement of temperature

The temperature of an object is measured as the degree of hotness or coldness of its body. For example, Boiling water is hot (100 celsius), whereas an ice cube is cold (0 celsius). This difference in the perception of the temperature of an object is measurable. The SI unit of temperature is Kelvin (K), although Celsius (C) and Fahrenheit (F) are the most commonly used measurement of temperature

The temperature of an object is calculated using a thermometer. The human body is measured using clinical mercury or digital thermometer. The temperature of a living human body is 37 degrees Celsius or 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Various units of measurement of temperature are mentioned below:

• 273 kelvin = 0 degrees Celsius
• 273 Kelvin = 37.3 degrees Fahrenheit

#### Measurement of area

The measurement of land, two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects is done using the physical quantity called area. The SI unit of area is square meters. An area is calculated by multiplying the length of either side of the object. For example:

• Length x breadth of a rectangle = area of a rectangle.
• Length x length of square = area of the square
• ½ x base of triangle x height of triangle = area of the triangle

Graph papers are used to calculate the area of these shapes on a piece of paper. The number of squares covered in the graph sheet is the area of the object. Suppose, you have to measure the area of a fallen leaf. Then you have to draw the outline of the leaf on graph paper, the total number of squares becomes the area of the leaf. The measurement of area of land is done using hectares, yards, acres, square kilometres. Below mentioned are a few multiples of area units :

1 square kilometres (km)= 1000 m x 1000m

1 hectare = 100m x 100m

1 square kilometres = 100 hectares

As we learned about different physical quantities of measurement, their conversions, and calculations, much more are available to learn at the MSVgo application. Visit Google Play Store and the iOS Apple Store. We provide more than 6000+ videos, a plethora of quizzes and interactive games. They are specifically focussed on children to bring a revolutionising way of education mainstream. Go download the app today.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time