# Chapter 3 – Energy

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Every organism needs energy to sustain its life on this planet. Humans need energy to carry out their day-to-day activities; plants need energy to grow and convert into food and fodder. Even the sun needs energy to burn and radiate energy to the earth. You must have heard that helium gas is burning on the sun’s surface, producing a lot of energy to be radiated in the universe. When we talk of energy, many students think that only fire is a source of energy, and although fire is a good source of energy, it is not the only source. If you want to know the process of conversion of energy, then read this blog.

• The SI unit of energy is Joules, named after Sir James Prescott Joule.
• The word energy comes from the Greek word ‘energeia’ that translates to activity and operation. Hence we can say that energy is the ability to work.
• Energy can be converted from one form to another. For example, wind energy can be converted to electricity, solar energy can be converted to electricity, and mechanical energy can be converted to thermal energy and more.
• The Law of conservation of energy states that the total energy always remains constant in an isolated system.

#### Different types of energy

There are many different types of energy, as listed below.

1. Thermal energy
2. Geothermal energy
3. Wind energy
4. Solar energy
5. Thermal energy
6. Hydroelectric energy
7. Biomass energy
8. Nuclear energy

#### Simple Machines

Machines are any tool that leverage the force applied and convert it into useful application either by multiplying, dividing or distributing the force. The next section will deal with the six different types of simple machines commonly used by humans.

#### Different types of simple machines

The six different types of simple machines are given below.

• Inclined Plane: Inclined planes are used to raise, lift or roll heavy objects through their sloping plane surface that remains attached to the ground. When you go to the mall and use the cart to take your things from one floor to another, you may have seen a long ramp on which you can move your trolley to reach the above floor. These inclined ramps are inclined planes and are extremely helpful in lifting heavy objects without making much effort. Some other examples are conveyor belts, switchback roads, sidewalk ramps and more.
• Wheel and Axle: In movies or your village, you must have seen the well from which people draw out water using the bucket that is holding on to a wheel situated on the top. You need to rotate the axle to let the wheel unfold the bucket rope, and hence the bucket moves down. Afterwards, the axle is again rotated in the reverse direction to bring the bucket up.
• Pulley: This device is similar to the axle and wheel but has been simplified more by directly using the rope on the wheel as a mechanical advantage. Hence you have one side of the rope and can pull it through the wheel. Pulleys are extensively used in lifts, flag poles, lifting heavy objects and more.
• Lever: This simple machine balances the effort and load and hinges on the fulcrum. If you have seen the see-saw, then you can visualise it easily. This mechanism is used to measure weights at shops where they put kilos on one side and things on the other side. The different orders of levers are FEL, LFE, LEF, ELF, where E is effort, L is load, and F is the fulcrum.
• Wedge: A wedge is a simple machine that multiplies the force and helps in breaking things. For example, if you take a screw with two sides, one side is flat and used for hammering, while the other side is narrower and used to break into things. Thus when we apply the force on the flat surface, the whole force is concentrated at a single narrow point, making it break into things.
• Screw: It is an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft that helps in drilling into things to hold two things together. Some common examples include car jack, spiral staircase, bolt, clamp and more. The screw converts the rotational motion into linear motion.

#### Conclusion

Energy is an omnipresent entity that is essential for survival. We gain energy from food, but also medicines, sun, environment, mood and more. Hence it becomes important to work and live well. We get energy through food and other means. This energy can create a force and be used on simple machines that make our life easier.

Apart from simple machines, we also have complex machines made from the combination of two or more simple machines and are used to perform some specialised tasks.

#### FAQs

1. What are the applications of the simple machine in our daily lives?
Simple machines make our life easier by assisting us in day-to-day work such as moving across different apartment floors, travelling, drinking from bottles, fixing things, and more.
2. What type of machine is the broom?
A broom is a type of lever as you apply force at the middle of the broom, the top is the fulcrum which controls the direction, and the bottom sweeps the floor.
3. How many types of simple machines are there?
There are six different types of simple machines: the lever, screw, wedge, wheel and axle, pulley, and inclined plane.
4. How can energy be transformed into other forms?
Energy is convertible and requires a catalyst/ force to be converted into other forms of energy. For example, solar energy is trapped in the panels. The heat is used to boil the water to generate thermal energy.
5. What is the law of conservation of energy?
The law of conservation of energy states that in an isolated system, the total energy remains constant.

At MSVgo’s video library, you can see the conversion of energy and its mechanisms in detail. It’s easy to understand the energy concepts when seen through intuitive video tutorials where the students can easily visualise the process and grasp the concepts.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time