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Chapter 2 – Compounds and Mixtures

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


The first element that humans understood as carbon, in the form of charcoal. There are around 115 elements, out of which there are 92 naturally occurring elements. Many of them were found in the late 1800s.

Symbols are used to describe an element. A symbol is a letter or image used to signify something. One or two letters are used to denote an element and thus, the Origin Of Symbols Of Elements. For example, the aluminium symbol is Al, and the oxygen symbol is O.

A chemical formula is used as a simple means of denoting the structure of the compounds. Letters, numbers, and symbols describe the elements and the number of elements of each compound.

A pure material that consists of only one type of atom and cannot be broken into two or more basic substances by physical or chemical means is referred to as an element. For example zinc, sulphur. An element is homogeneous; it is a pure product, made up of just one kind of atom.

Compounds are made up of one or more elements and are described by chemical formulas. A compound comprises atoms of various elements which are chemically mixed in a fixed ratio. A compound can be broken down into simpler compounds using chemical methods/reactions. A compound is expressed by a formula—for example, water (H2O), sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium oxide (MgO).

In chemistry, when two or more substances are mixed without taking part in a chemical change, the resulting substance is called a mixture. The result formed by a combination of substances does not lose its individuality or is chemically combined. Mixtures are a single product of a mechanical blending or mixing of chemical substances such as elements and compounds.

Basis of DistinctionMixturesCompounds
DefinitionMixtures are substances created by the actual combining of two or more substances.A compound is a compound that can be created by chemically mixing two or more elements.
TypesMixtures are primarily of two kinds, i.e. homogenous mixtures and heterogeneous mixtures.Compounds can be of three types: covalent compounds, metallic compounds and ionic compounds.
NatureIt can be both homogenous and heterogenousAlways homogeneous
PropertiesThe mixture constituents do not lose their properties, so the mixture’s properties are usually the sum of its constituents’ properties.The compounds’ properties are specific to themselves and do not generally constitute the constituent elements’ properties.
Melting and Boiling PointsNot definedAlways defined

Most of the time, the substances we see around us are not in their pure form. Therefore, there are several types of separation techniques used to segregate a mixture of substances. 

  • Sieving: Sieving is applied to separate mixtures that mostly contain substances of different sizes. The mixture is passed through the sieve pores. The smaller parts of the mixture pass through easily while retaining the larger parts of the mixture.
  • Sedimentation: Sedimentation is a process in which the heavier impurities present in the liquid normally settle down at the bottom of the container containing the mixture. 
  • Decantation: Decantation is a process for separating mixtures by removing a liquid layer free from precipitate or solids deposited from a solution. The aim may be to obtain a decent (liquid free of particulate matter) or recover precipitate.
  • Filtration: Filtration is the most used method of separating a liquid from an insoluble solid. An excellent example of this is the mixture of sand in liquid. Filtration is used to eradicate solid particles from the liquid. A lot of filtering agents are commonly used as paper filters.
  • Evaporation: Evaporation is a technique used to separate a mixture from a solvent and a soluble solid. The solution is heated until the organic solvent evaporates, where it turns into a gaseous state and mostly leaves the solid residue behind.
  • Magnetic Separation: If one substance in the mixture possesses magnetic properties, this method is helpful. Strong magnets are used for the separation of magnetic elements.


In this chapter, we learned about mixtures and compounds. We talked about the various types of separation techniques used in mixtures and some key concepts like elements and compounds.

  1. List some chemical methods used in separation?
    Distillation, membrane procedures, crystallisation, adsorption, absorption and oxidation are chemical methods used for separation and purification.
  2. How can sand and salt be separated?
    It remains in the bath as sand or is applied to the tub or creates a film on the bottle’s bottom. As a result, sand doesn’t dissolve in water and is insoluble. It is easy to separate sand and water by separating the mixture. Salt may be segregated from a solution by evaporation.
  3. What are the two kinds of mixtures?
    There are two kinds of mixtures: heterogeneous and homogeneous.
  4. What is the difference between the compound, element and mixture?
    The compound contains atoms of different elements which are chemically combined in a fixed ratio. An element is a pure chemical substance of the same type of atom. Compounds contain various fixed-ratio elements organised in a given manner by chemical bonds. They only contain one type of molecule.
  5. What are the similarities between the components and compounds?
    At the most basic level, both of them are made up of atoms.

To learn more about compounds and mixtures through simple, interactive, and explanatory visualisations, download the MSVgo app. MSVgo offers a large base of learning videos as well as interactive learning methods.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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