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Chapter 2 – Light

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Light is an electric wave produced from heated things such as lasers, lights, and the sun. Light is a form of kinetic energy that helps us to see or render objects apparent through our eyes. The human eye will see light energy, which is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are tiny energy packets that makeup light. As the atoms of an entity are heated, photons are formed. The heat excites the electrons, which increases electricity. The energy is emitted in the form of a photon, and as the material heats up, more photons are released.

Light refraction is one of the most well-known effects, but other waves, such as sound and water waves, can also refract. We may use optical devices like magnifying glasses, mirrors, and prisms, regardless of refraction. We can also centre light on our retina because of the refraction of light.

In optics and technology, refraction has various uses. The following are a number of the most well-known applications: 

  • For different reasons, such as magnification, a lens uses refraction to create a picture of an item. 
  • Spectacles worn by people with defective vision use the principle of refraction. 
  • Peepholes in house frames, monitors, movie projectors, and telescopes all utilise refraction.

In optics, total internal reflection refers to the full reflection of a beam of light from the outer objects back onto a medium such as water or glass. If the angle of incidence approaches a certain limiting angle, defined as the critical angle, the anomaly arises. Complete internal reflection happens as a ray of light from a medium with a higher index of refraction enters the other medium at an angle of incidence greater than the essential angle at the border between two transparent media. The critical angle for a water-air surface is 48.5°. Since refraction indices are wavelength-dependent, the critical angle (and thus, the angle of complete internal reflection) differs marginally with wavelength and, thus, with colour. Both refraction and reflection arise in differing amounts at all angles less than the critical angle.

The following are a few explanations of how absolute internal reflection may be used: 

  • System of communication 
  • Windshield wipers and rain indicators for cars 
  • Tools for optical fingerprinting

Lenses are simply curved-side magnifying lenses. By refraction, a lens is a fragment of translucent glass that concentrates or disperses light rays when they travel through it. Lenses are used in telescopes and other magnifying instruments because of their magnifying properties. They are used to collect light rays and are used in sensors. 

In cameras, light is captured using a collection of lenses rather than a single lens. The relationship between the size of the picture created by a lens and the size of the target is known as magnification. Lenses may often be used in groups to eliminate blurriness or distortion in the picture produced by the lens.

A prism is a translucent solid body with three rectangular lateral surfaces and two triangular faces that are inclined at an angle, as described in optics. 

As white light travels through a prism, it creates a rainbow of seven shades, showing that white light is a combination of seven colours. Prism only works as a separating medium for the seven shades. Refraction occurs as light strikes the glass prism. Since the wavelengths of various components of light vary and the frequency stays constant, the difference in velocity in the glass medium allows each object to deviate by a particular angle. The colour red, which has the longest wavelength, deviates the least and forms the upper half of the spectrum, while violet, which has the shortest wavelength, deviates the most and forms the lower portion.

Infrared light, X-rays, microwaves, and ultraviolet radiation are forms of electromagnetic radio waves that are visible. These waves may be visualised as the colours of the rainbow, with each hue containing a different wavelength. The wavelength of red is the highest, while that of violet is the smallest. When all of the waves are visible at the same moment, white light is produced. As white light travels through the lens, it is split down into the visible light spectrum’s colours. 

For various frequencies and wavelengths, EM radiation may be emitted as waves or ions. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to this broad range of wavelengths. It’s split into seven parts, with wavelengths declining and energy and frequency rising.

In this chapter, we learned about the basic concepts of light. We learned about the propagation and refraction of light.

  1. In physics, what is light?
    The word ‘light’ is often used in science to refer to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, apparent or not. Gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves are also light in this way. A photon is the absorbed energy of EM waves and reflects the quanta of illumination. 
  2. How can light propagate?
    Rays are light waves that propagate in straight lines from their source. 
  3. What are the three fundamental characteristics of light?
    Frequency (f), wavelength (w), and photon energy (p) is the most general terminology used to define light quanta. 
  4. What is the concept of light energy?
    Electromagnetic radiation contains light energy. Light consists of photons, which are generated as an object’s atoms heat up. The only source of energy apparent to the naked eye is light, which travels in waves. 
  5. When it comes to light, where does it travel the fastest?
    Explain because, unlike sound, light waves move fastest in a vacuum and through the air and slower through other components like glass or water.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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