# Chapter 4 – Electricity and Magnetism

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The electromagnetic force is made up of two distinct but related phenomena—electricity and magnetism. Together, they form the base for electromagnetism, a critical branch of physics.

#### The Fundamental Concept of Electricity

Electricity is a phenomenon that takes place when electric charges are stable or moving. A fundamental particle, an electron, a proton, an ion, or some wider entity with excess positive and negative charges could be the cause of the electric charge. Like charges repel each other while positive and negative charges attract each other (e.g., protons attract electrons).

#### The Fundamental Concept of Magnetism

The physical effect caused by a moving electric charge is known as magnetism. A magnetic field may also cause excited particles to move, resulting in the generation of an electric current. The electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic stream (like light) are also present. The wave’s two components move in an identical course but at a normal angle to each other.

#### Ohm’s Law

Ohm’s rule is one of the most central and essential principles in electric circuits.

If both physical parameters and temperature stay unchanged, Ohm’s law notes that the voltage through a conductor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it.

#### Equation of Ohm’s Law

V = IR,

where V is the voltage through the conductor, I is the current flowing through it, and R is the resistance to the current flow given by the conductor.

#### Electrical Power and Energy

• Description of electric power
This quantity is measured in terms of the rate at which work is performed or the energy converted in an electrical circuit. Simply stated, it calculates how much electricity is consumed in a given time frame.
In physics, the rate of energy transferred through an electrical circuit per unit of time is known as ‘energy’. Electrical energy may be used in the context of kinetic or potential energy. In most situations, the kinetic energy is considered and is the energy accumulated attributable to the charged particles or electric fields having different speeds. Electrical power is usually expressed by ‘P’ and calculated in Watts.
• Description of electric energy
Electricity is electrical energy that is generated by potential or kinetic energy. In general, it is referred to as the sum of electric potential capacity. Electrical energy is described as the energy that is produced by the movement of electrons from one position to another. a current or a wave of charged particles takes place as part of a passage through a medium (say, wire).
• Household circuits
Electrical wiring for lighting and power delivery, permanently mounted and portable equipment, telecommunications, heating or ventilation device operation, and increasingly for home theatre and computer networks are all common in homes.
Electricity from a power station is delivered by two wires—live and neutral. A domestic circuit is made up of three wires—a live wire (red), a neutral wire (black), and an earth wire (yellow) (green). Any current that spills into equipment passes harmlessly to earth via the earth cable.
• Electromagnetic induction
Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell mathematically defined it as Faraday’s rule of induction.
Electromagnetic induction is a current produced by the creation of voltage (electromotive force) in the presence of a shifting magnetic field.
When a conductor is put in a moving magnetic field (using an AC power source), or when a conductor is continuously running in a stationary magnetic field, this arises.
• Fleming’s Left-Hand rule
“If a current-carrying conductor is mounted in an outside magnetic domain, the conductor feels a force perpendicular to both the field and the path of the current flow,” according to Fleming’s left-hand law. John Ambrose Fleming was the one who came up with the idea.
When a moving conductor is put within a magnetic field, a current is produced in it, according to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. There will be a relationship between the position of applied power, magnetic field, and current if the conductor is violently pushed within the magnetic field. It is mostly used in the operation of electric motors.
The rule’s key objective is to establish the direction of motion in an electric motor. The direction of motion in an electric motor is defined by Fleming’s left-hand rule, which is based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.
• Fleming’s Right-Hand rule
According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, when a moving conductor is put within a magnetic field, a current is produced in it. Fleming’s right-hand law specifies the interaction between all three paths.
The direction of motion is indicated by the thumb; the magnetic field is indicated by the forefinger, and the middle finger indicates the generated current.

#### Conclusion

In this chapter, we learned about the basics of electricity and magnetism. We observed the magnetic effect of a current.

#### FAQs

1. What is the relationship between electricity and magnetism?
Flowing electrons create a magnetic field, and rotating magnets create an electric current. The interaction between these two powerful forces is known as electromagnetism.
2. What part do electricity and magnetism perform in our lives?
Computers and motors are all driven by electricity. A compass is formed by magnetism.
3. Is magnetism an electrical phenomenon?
Magnets’ properties are used to generate energy.
4. What is the source of magnetism?
The acceleration of electric charges induced magnetism.
5. Is magnetism a field of physics?
Physics is an area of research that deals thoroughly with magnetism.

We understand that learning electricity and magnetism can be tricky. At MSVgo, we provide you with easy video lessons combined with real-life examples that help you get a conceptual understanding.

### High School Physics

• Alternating Current
• Atoms
• Communication Systems
• Current Electricity
• Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
• Electric Charges and Fields
• Electricity
• Electromagnetic Induction
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Electrons and Photons
• Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
• Fluid Pressure
• Force and Acceleration
• Force And Laws Of Motion
• Gravitation
• Internal Energy
• Kinetic Theory
• Law of motion
• Light – Reflection And Refraction
• Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
• Magnetism and Matter
• Management Of Natural Resources
• Mechanical properties of Fluids
• Mechanical properties of Solids
• Motion
• Motion in a plane
• Motion in a straight line
• Moving Charges and Magnetism
• Nuclear Energy
• Nuclei
• Oscillations
• Our Environment
• Paths of Heat
• Physical world
• Ray optics and optical instruments
• Semiconductor Devices
• Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
• Simple Machines
• Sound
• Sources Of Energy
• Specific and Latent Heats
• Spherical Mirrors
• Static Electricity
• Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
• Thermal properties of matter
• Thermodynamics
• Units and Measurement
• Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
• Wave Optics
• Waves
• Work, Power and Energy

### High School Chemistry

• Acids, Bases and Salts
• Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
• Alkyl and Aryl Halides
• Amines
• Analytical Chemistry
• Atomic Structure
• Atoms And Molecules
• Basic concepts of Chemistry
• Biomolecules
• Carbon And Its Compounds
• Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
• Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
• Chemical Energetics
• Chemical Equilibria
• Chemical Kinetics
• Chemical Reactions And Equations
• Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
• Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemistry of p-Block elements
• Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
• Classification of Elements
• Coordination Compounds
• Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
• Electrochemistry
• Electrolysis
• Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
• Environmental Chemistry
• Equilibrium
• Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
• Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Hydrocarbons
• Hydrogen
• Ideal solutions
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Ionic equilibria
• Matter
• Matter Around Us
• Matter In Our Surroundings
• Metallurgy
• Metals And Non-Metals
• Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
• Natural Resources
• Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
• Periodic Classification of Elements
• Physical and Chemical Changes
• Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
• Polymers
• Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
• Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Redox Reactions
• Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
• States of Matter
• Structure Of The Atom
• Study of Compounds
• Study of Gas Laws
• Study of Representative Elements
• Surface Chemistry
• The d-block and f-block elements
• The Gaseous State
• The p-Block Elements
• The Periodic Table
• The s-Block Elements
• The Solid State
• Thermodynamics

### High School Biology

• Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
• Anatomy of Flowering Plants
• Animal Kingdom
• Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
• Biodiversity and Conservation
• Biofertilizers
• Biological Classification
• Biomedical Engineering
• Biomolecules
• Biotechnology and its Applications
• Biotic Community
• Body Fluids and Circulation
• Breathing and Exchange of Gases
• Cell – Unit of Life
• Cell Cycle and Cell Division
• Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
• Cell Reproduction
• Cellular Respiration
• Chemical Coordination and Integration
• Circulation
• Control And Coordination
• Crop Improvement
• Digestion and Absorption
• Diversity In Living Organisms
• Ecosystem
• Environmental Issues
• Excretory Products and their Elimination
• Flowering Plants
• Genes and Chromosomes
• Health and Diseases
• Health and Its Significance
• Heredity And Evolution
• Heredity and Variation
• How Do Organisms Reproduce?
• Human Diseases
• Human Eye And Colourful World
• Human Health and Disease
• Human Population
• Human Reproduction
• Hygiene
• Improvement In Food Resources
• Integumentary System- Skin
• Kingdom Fungi
• Kingdom Monera
• Kingdom Protista
• Life Processes
• Locomotion and Movement
• Microbes in Human Welfare
• Mineral Nutrition
• Molecular Basis of Inheritance
• Morphology of Flowering Plants
• Neural Control And Coordination
• Nutrition in Human Beings
• Organism and Population
• Photosynthesis
• Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
• Plant Growth and Development
• Plant Kingdom
• Pollination and Fertilization
• Pollution; Sources and its effects
• Principles of Inheritance and Variation
• Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
• Reproduction in Organisms
• Reproductive Health
• Respiration in Human Beings
• Respiration in Plants
• Respiratory System
• Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
• Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
• Structural Organisation in Animals
• Structural Organisation of the Cell
• The Endocrine System
• The Fundamental Unit Of Life
• The Living World
• The Nervous System and Sense Organs
• Tissues
• Transpiration
• Transport in Plants

### High School Math

• Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
• Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
• Algebra – Linear Inequalities
• Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
• Algebra – Polynomials
• Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
• Binomial Theorem
• Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
• Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
• Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
• Calculus – Differential Equations
• Calculus – Integrals
• Geometry – Area
• Geometry – Circles
• Geometry – Conic Sections
• Geometry – Constructions
• Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
• Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
• Geometry – Lines and Angles
• Geometry – Straight Lines
• Geometry – Triangles
• Linear Programming
• Matrices and Determinants
• Mensuration – Areas
• Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
• Number Systems
• Number Systems – Real Numbers
• Permutations and Combinations
• Probability
• Sequence and Series
• Sets and Functions
• Statistics
• Trignometry – Height and Distance
• Trignometry – Identities
• Trignometry – Introduction

### Middle School Science

• Acids, Bases And Salts
• Air and Its Constituents
• Basic Biology
• Body Movements
• Carbon and Its Compounds
• Cell – Structure And Functions
• Changes Around Us
• Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
• Coal And Petroleum
• Combustion And Flame
• Components Of Food
• Conservation Of Plants And Animals
• Crop Production And Management
• Electric Current And Its Effects
• Electricity And Circuits
• Elements and Compounds
• Fibre To Fabric
• Food production and management
• Force And Pressure
• Forests: Our Lifeline
• Friction
• Fun With Magnets
• Garbage In, Garbage Out
• Getting To Know Plants
• Health and Hygiene
• Heat
• Hydrogen
• Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
• Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
• Matter and Its States
• Metals and Non-metals
• Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
• Motion And Measurement Of Distances
• Motion And Time
• Nutrition In Animals
• Nutrition In Plants
• Organization in Living Things
• Our Environment
• Physical And Chemical Changes
• Pollution and conservation
• Pollution Of Air And Water
• Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
• Reproduction In Animals
• Reproduction In Plants
• Respiration In Organisms
• Rocks and Minerals
• Separation Of Substances
• Simple Machines
• Soil
• Some Natural Phenomena
• Sorting Materials Into Groups
• Sound
• Stars And The Solar System
• Structure of Atom
• Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
• The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
• Transfer of Heat
• Transformation of Substances
• Transportation In Animals And Plants
• Universe
• Waste-water Story
• Water: A Precious Resource
• Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
• Winds, Storms And Cyclones

### Middle School Math

• Area and Its Boundary
• Boxes and Sketches
• Data Handling
• Fun With Numbers
• Heavy and Light
• How Many
• Long And Short
• Mapping
• Measurement
• Money
• Multiplication and Factors
• Multiply and Divide
• Numbers
• Parts and Wholes
• Pattern Recognition
• Patterns
• Play With Patterns
• Rupees And Paise
• Shapes And Angles
• Shapes And Designs
• Shapes and Space
• Similarity
• Smart Charts
• Squares
• Subtraction
• Tables And Shares
• Tenths and Hundredths
• Time