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Chapter 3 – Study of Acids, Bases and Salts

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The most widely used concepts in Physics are Work Energy And Power. They’re most definitely the first thing you studied in physics class. Work and energy may be conceived of as two sides of a common coin.

Work is normally calculated using the force applied, while energy is measured in terms of other variables such as heat. An object dragged across the surface by force is an example of work. A solar cooker used at your home for cooking is an example of using solar energy. Power is the amount of work performed in a specified amount of time. A car engine is an example of a machine that uses power.

Many acids and bases occur naturally in nature. Citric acid is present naturally in fruits such as orange and lemon. Tartaric acid is naturally present in tamarind, malic acid is present in apples, and lactic acid is present in milk and milk products, and hydrochloric acid is present in gastric juices. 

Many of the acids that we do not consume in the household are used in laboratories and industries that include acids such as HCl, H2SO4, etc. and bases such as NaOH, KOH, etc. When these acids and bases are mixed in the right proportions, the neutralisation reaction results in the formation of salt and water. 


Mineral acid, also known as an inorganic acid, is an acid that comes from an inorganic compound that dissociates to create hydrogen ions (H+) in H2O. These ions present in mineral acids are highly water-soluble but appear to be not soluble in organic solvents. Inorganic acids are very corrosive. Some naturally occurring salts found in nature include NaCl and KCl, etc., in marine and natural rock deposits. This section will focus on the study of acids, bases and salt and their properties.

Salt is an ionic compound that occurs from the neutralisation of acids and bases. Salts are formed by positively charged ions (known as cations) and negatively charged ions (known as anions), which may be organic or inorganic in nature. These ions are present in a proportional quantity, thereby making the nature of the salt neutral. 

It is found in significant amounts in seawater, where it is the main mineral component. Salt is important to animal life, and saltiness is one of the simple human tastes. Salt is an ionic compound with a cation other than H+ and anion other than OH and is generated along with water in the neutralisation reaction between acids and bases.

  • Acid salt: Salt formed by partial neutralisation of diprotic or polyprotic acid is known as acid salt. These salts, along with another cation, have ionisable H+ ion. The ionisable H+ is mostly part of the anion. Some acid salts are used for baking. For example—NaHSO4, KH2PO4, etc.
  • Basic or alkali salt: Salt formed by partial neutralisation of a solid base of a weak acid is known as basic salt. They are hydrolysed to form a simple solution. That is that when the hydrolysis of the basic salt occurs, the conjugate base of the weak acid is formed in the solution—for example—white lead (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2).
  • Double salts: Salts with more than one cation or anion are known as double salts. They are obtained by the synthesis of two separate salts crystallised in the same ion lattice. For example—Potassium sodium tartrate (KNaC4H4O6.4H2O), also known as Rochelle salt.
  • Mixed Salts: Salt consisting of a fixed proportion of two salts, sometimes shared by either a common cation or a common anion, is known as mixed salt. For example—CaOCl2

The compound sodium chloride has very different properties from the sodium and chlorine elements.

  • Saltwater comprises ions and is a relatively good conductor of electricity.
  • This electrostatic attraction force binds the ions together, and a chemical bond is said to form between them.

The procedure used for laboratory preparation of salt relies on the solubility of the salt in the water. A soluble salt can be prepared by a reaction between an acid and a metal, a base or a carbonate.

 

  • Acid + alkali gives salt + water.
  • Acid + metal gives salt + hydrogen.
  • Acid + salt gives salt + water.
  • Acid + metal carbonate gives salt + water + carbon dioxide.

Chemical decomposition is the splitting or dissolution of a single chemical compound into simpler compounds or their elementary components. This can be described as the exact opposite of chemical synthesis. For example:

  • Electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen: 2 H2O(I) into 2H2 + O2
  • As carbonates are heated, decompose: H2CO3 into H2O + CO2
  • Chemical decomposition of calcium carbonate: CaCO3 into CaO + CO2
  • Decomposition of metal chlorates when heated: 2 MClO3 into 2 MCl+ 3 O2

In this chapter, we learnt about the concepts of acids, bases and salts. We also learnt about the types and properties of salts. The chapter also gave us knowledge of the laboratory preparation of salts.

  1. Why do HCl, HNO3, etc., exhibit acidic characters in aqueous solutions?
    The release of H+ ion in water will make a compound acidic or non-acid. Acids are a compound that results in the formation of hydrogen ions when dissolved with water. Some molecules have an acidic character when they dissolve in the aqueous solution, resulting in the release of hydrogen ions (acids like HCl, HNO3).
  2. Why do solutions of compounds such as alcohol and glucose not show acidic character?
    Compounds like glucose or alcohol do contain hydrogen elements but do not exhibit signs of an acidic disposition. The fact that the hydrogen in them would not differentiate like the hydrogen in the acids. They’re not going to split to become hydrogen ions, dissolving in water.
  3. Why does an aqueous acid solution is a conductor of electricity?
    The charged particles are responsible for the conductivity of the electricity in the acid. These charged particles, called ions, are the cause for the conductivity of electricity in acid.
  4. Why does dry HCl gas not affect the colour of dry litmus paper?
    HCl does not emit hydrogen ions, so HCl does not exhibit any acidic behaviour, and the colour of the litmus paper remains the same when reacting with HCl gas.
  5. Why should curd and sour compounds not be stored in brass and copper vessels?
    Curd and sour food compounds contain acids; these acidic substances often combine with metal. This reaction transforms food into a toxin that damages people’s health.

At MSVgo, find a huge collection of video lessons to learn and appreciate the study of acids, bases and salts. Download the app to explore a video library of interactive science and math videos along with interactive quizzes and question banks.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
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  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
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  • Physical world
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  • Semiconductor Devices
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  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
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  • Life Processes
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  • Microbes in Human Welfare
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  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
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  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
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  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
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  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
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  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
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  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
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  • Linear Programming
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  • Mensuration – Areas
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  • Number Systems
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  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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