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Chapter 9 – Organic Chemistry – Hydrocarbons

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Organic Chemistry involves studying the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparations of carbon-containing compounds. Organic chemistry also includes hydrocarbons and other compounds like – hydrogen carbon bond, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur. 

Organic Chemistry also includes living organisms and other human-made substances like plastics.

Organic Compounds refer to a chemical containing carbon. But there are simple oxides of carbon like – carbonates and carbides, which contain carbon and fall into the category of inorganic compounds.

Homologous series refers to the family of carbon compounds, which involves – 

  • Having the same general formulae 
  • Shows a difference of 14 u in their molecular mass 
  • Shows physical properties gradation 
  • Shows similar traits in chemical properties 
  • It falls into the category of the same functional group. 
  • Distinct from the previous member by –CH2 classification

Hydrocarbons contain both hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are majorly divided into two categories – 

  • Open Chain Hydrocarbons – The hydrocarbons which contain carbon-carbon straight links. Open chain hydrocarbons can be divided into – saturated hydrocarbons or unsaturated hydrocarbons.
  • Closed Chain Hydrocarbons – The compounds of carbon that contain a closed ring are called closed chain hydrocarbons.

Alkanes belong to the family of organic compounds that contain single-bonded hydrogen and carbon atoms. The simplest formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2. 

Alkanes can further be subdivided into three groups – 

  • Chain Alkanes 
  • Cycloalkanes 
  • Branched Alkanes

Alkenes are a form of hydrocarbons that contains a minimum of carbon to carbon bond. Alkenes are often called olefins. Alkenes are highly reactive as alkanes, and this is because of the presence of double bonds in them. 

Alkenes have a wide variety of applications – 

  • Production of polythene like plastics is further used in making buckets, bowls, bags. 
  • Manufacture of anti-knock part for car engines 
  • Manufacture of acrylic fibres 
  • Manufacture of propanol that is further used in making acetone 
  • Production of ethanol and synthetic fibre – terylene

Alkynes fall into the category of unsaturated hydrocarbon. The alkynes contain a minimum of one triple bond between the carbon atoms. There are majorly two types of alkynes – Terminal alkynes and Internal alkynes. One of the unique factors in the structure of alkyne is its hybridisation. The physical properties of alkynes are very similar to alkenes. The general molecular formula of an alkyne is CnH2n-2.

What is alcohol? 

Alcohol falls into the category of organic compounds that contains a hydroxyl group. We can divide Alcohol molecules into two major parts – the alkyl group and the hydroxyl group. Alcohols have a sweet odour, but their physical and chemical properties are distinct.

We can majorly classify alcohol as –

  • Primary Alcohol – Those alcohols where the hydroxyl group’s carbon atom is attached to only one hydroxyl group. Some of the examples of primary alcohol are – methanol and ethanol. 
  • Secondary Alcohol – Here, the hydroxyl group’s carbon atom is attached to two alkyl groups on either side. Some of the secondary alcohol examples are – Propan 2 Ol, Butan 2 Ol, Pen 3 Ol.
  • Tertiary Alcohol – These alcohol groups feature hydroxyl group-containing carbon atoms connected to 3 alkyl groups. Some of the major examples of tertiary alcohol are – 2 methyl propane 2 Ol and 2 methyl butane 2 Ol.

Isomerism refers to multiple compounds that have the same chemical formula but different chemical structures. Some chemical compounds have the same chemical formula but different chemical properties and the arrangement of atoms. Such chemical compounds are called isomers.

There are two major types of isomers – structural isomerism and stereoisomerism. 

Structural Isomerism – This is also referred to as constitutional isomerism. In this isomer, the functional group, as well as atoms, are arranged differently. Structural isomerism can further be divided into:
a. chain isomerism 

  1. Functional isomerism 
  2. Ring chain isomerism 
  3. Position isomerism. 

Stereoisomerism – This isomerism has the same chemical formula but different atoms orientation molecules seen in three-dimensional spaces. They also have two major classes – geometric isomerism, optical isomerism.

Organic Chemistry is an exciting chapter. This chapter talks about the molecules and it’s structures, compositions, organic compounds and much more. This chapter also talks about the hydrogen and carbon compounds and the presence of the same. Organic chemistry is the backbone of advanced chemistry, and thus it’s essential to understand this chapter in brief.

  1. Name the first four alkanes?
    The first four alkanes are – Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).
  2. Can you use alkenes as fuel?
    Alkenes burn readily in the air and release carbon dioxide and water. Alkenes are used in other essential things like the manufacture of polythene and many other such uses.
  3. What are the major uses of alcohol?
    Major uses of alcohol are stated as follows –Alcohols are majorly consumed as beverages worldwide, especially when they contain 30-40% of ethanol by volume. 

    • Alcohol is also used as an anti-freezing agent. 
    • Alcohol can also be used as an antiseptic agent. 
    • Alcohol is used in several areas as a preservative. 
    • Alcohol can also be used as fuel. 

     

  4. Give an example of – (a) Saturated hydrocarbon (b) Unsaturated hydrocarbon
    i. Saturated hydrocarbon – Hexane
    ii. Unsaturated Hydrocarbon – Hexene 
  5. What are the major sources of organic compounds?
    Following are some of the major sources of organic compounds –

    • Plants 
    • Animals 
    • Coal 
    • Wood 
    • petroleum 

     

  6. Name some of the unique properties of carbon?
    i. Isomerism
    ii. Catenation
    iii. Tetravalency of carbon

Organic chemistry can be a little difficult and tricky to understand and you can get clarity through video lectures. MSVgo is a vast repository of video lectures that will provide you better conceptual clarity and understanding of the subject. Have a look at these videos to understand the topics in a better way.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
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  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
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  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
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  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
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  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
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  • Metallurgy
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  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
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  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
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  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
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  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
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  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
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High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
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  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
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  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
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  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
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  • Sets and Functions
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  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
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  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
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  • Chemistry in Your Life
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  • Components Of Food
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  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
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  • Stars And The Solar System
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  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
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  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
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  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
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  • Multiplication and Factors
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  • Similarity
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  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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