Syllabus covered in the MSVgo app

Download MSVgo app now!

Chapter 7 – Metallurgy

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Metals are the elements that ionise by losing electrons. They form positive ions by losing the electrons. Non-metals accept electrons and form negative ions. Sodium, potassium, and aluminium are some examples of metals, and carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen are a few non-metals.

Below are the distinguishing points between metals and non-metals

 

MetalsNon-Metals
These are solid at room temperature and have lustre.These are either gases or soft solids and do not possess lustre.
They are good conductors of electricity except for Tungsten.They are bad conductors of electricity except for carbon and graphite.
They have high melting and boiling points and have high density.They have low melting and boiling points and are less dense.
They have valence electrons 1, 2, or 3.They have valence electrons 4 to 7.
They lose electrons and are reducing agents.They gain electrons and are oxidising agents.
They release hydrogen when diluting with acids.They do not release hydrogen when diluting with acids.

Metals exist in nature in impure form. The crust of the earth is the main source of metal. Metals exist both in combined form or in the free state. Gold and mercury are available in the free state. Sodium and magnesium are present as chlorides. The metals present in a combined state are called minerals.

Metals are present inside the earth in impure form. They need to be extracted and transformed into pure form. Metallurgy is the process of extraction of metals from the ore in pure form. The metals, when extracted from ore, have soil, sand, rock, and limestone combined. These limestone, rock, and salt are called ores. The impurities that get removed during the process of metallurgy are called flux.

Metallurgy follows the below steps:

Step1: Concentration of Ore

In this step, the matrix gets separated from the ore. This step uses the below principles of extraction.

  1. Magnetic separation: This method is mainly applicable for the ores of aluminium and iron. For these two metals, either the ore or matrix is magnetic, and the other is non-magnetic.
  2. Froth floatation method: In this method, the ore gets wetted with oil. As a result, the impurities get wet with water, and impurities settle at the base.
  3. Hydrolytic method: This method works by the different densities of metal and impurities. The sense particles settle at the bottom, and lighter ones get washed with water.
  4. Chemical method: In this method, flux gets added into impure ore so that matrix gets separated.

Step2: Ore conversion to metal oxide

In this step, the concentrated ore gets converted into metal oxides using one of the below methods:

  1. Calcination: Concentrated ore is heated in the absence of air or in limited air.
  2. Roasting: Concentrated ore gets heated in the presence of air.

Step3: Reduction of metallic oxides to metal

In this step, the metal oxide gets reduced to metals. It is done using the process of electrolysis or with the help of reducing the agents.

Step4: Refining

In this step, the impure metal gets refined to get pure metal. Below methods are used for refining:

  1. Liquidation refining: It is used for the refining of lead and tin.
  2. Distillation refining: It is used for the refining of mercury and zinc.
  3. Oxidation refining: It is used for the refining of iron.
  4. Electro-refining: It is used for the refining of copper and aluminium.

Aluminium ore, also called bauxite, follows the metallurgy process for the extraction of aluminium. Below steps are followed to extract aluminium from bauxite.

Step1: Baeyer’s process

This is the step of concentration of aluminium ore called bauxite. It is the chemical method in which aluminium oxide is treated with sodium hydroxide. As a result, sodium aluminate is formed, which is soluble and can be filtered. The filtrate then gets heated with water that forms aluminium hydroxide crystals. Aluminium hydroxide is heated strongly to form alumina.

 

Step2: Hall Heroult’s Process

Hall Heroult’s process is the method of extraction of aluminium. It is the process of electrolytic extraction in which Na3AlF6 or CaF2 gets mixed with alumina (Al2O3). It helps in reducing the melting point and makes it conduct electricity. This process is followed in the steel vessel having carbon lining and graphite rods immersed in the vessel. The carbon lining of the vessel acts as a cathode, and the graphite rods act as an anode. When electricity is passed, oxygen forms at the anode. Oxygen released at anode combines with carbon to form carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Aluminium ions get accumulated at the cathode and then settle at the bottom.

The aluminium collected by Hall Heroult’s process is almost 99.5% pure.

  1. Aluminium foil is used for food wrapping purposes.
  2. It has a wide variety of applications in the transport and construction fields.
  3. It can easily be moulded into different shapes and used to form storage cans.
  4. It is the most used metal after iron.
  5. Dust of aluminium is added to paints.
  6. It helps in the extraction of chromium and manganese.

To conclude, metals are the elements that ionise to form positive ions. The occurrence of metals in nature is a free or combined state. The metals present in the combined state have to go through the process of metallurgy to get extracted as refined in pure form.

  1. What are the methods to prevent corrosion?
    Two methods to prevent corrosion are galvanisation and painting.
  2. What is the name of Aluminium ore?
    Bauxite is an aluminium ore.
  3. What is Baeyer’s process?
    Baeyer’s process is the extraction of alumina from bauxite by adding concentrated sodium hydroxide.
  4. What is Hall Heroult’s process?
    Hall Heroult’s process is the method of extracting pure aluminium from alumina using electrolysis.
  5. What are metals?
    Metals are the elements that ionise by losing electrons.
  6. How are metals different from non-metals?
    Metals lose electrons and form positive ions, while non-metals gain electrons and form negative ions.

You can learn other chemistry chapters in the form of exciting videos on MSVgo. MSVgo is an easy-to-learn platform for the students that makes learning an interesting way. Download the MSVgo app or use the MSVgo website to get access to the videos on different chapters.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
Please switch to portrait mode
for the best experience.
Click to open Popup