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Chapter 5 – Pollution

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Pollution primarily destroys our world, and it must be understood and addressed. Here we’ll find out how pollution affects children, and how to deal with pollution.

Pollution is a term which even children nowadays recognise. It has been so widespread that almost everyone understands that pollution is constantly soaring. The word ‘pollution’ refers to the sign of everything that is an unwanted foreign matter. When we talk about pollution on our planet, we are worried about the contamination caused by many chemicals in environmental assets.

Chemical compounds, such as particulate matter, are not the only cause of pollution. Pollution may occur even in types of energy, such as sound, heat, or light. Pollutants are known as those compounds that produce contamination. The environmental equilibrium is affected by pollution, even in relatively short numbers. Pollutants could even get into the food chain and find their way into the human body.

The word ‘pollution’ refers to any substance impacting the atmosphere or living species in the environment in concern. The four main types of pollution are air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, and noise pollution.


  1. Air Pollution
    The burning of fossil fuels is a significant cause of air pollution, while other air pollution causes are vehicles and factory emissions.
    Air pollution leads to asthma, lung cancer, and other pulmonary diseases such as chronic bronchitis. Acid rain, a precipitation category with a lower pH than average, amounts to nitrogen and sulfur oxides. Acid rain destroys forests and rivers and degrades sculptures, landmarks, and precious monuments.
  2. Water Pollution
    Topsoil erosion from farmland, industrial sites, and urban areas is a significant cause of water pollution. Drainage interrupts the water body’s internal equilibrium, whereas agricultural drainage usually contains manure or hazardous compounds. Another kind of water contaminant is raw sewage. Several gastrointestinal and digestive problems, including the spread of diseases like typhoid or dysentery, can occur when pollution affects the drinking water system.
  3. Soil Pollution
    Soil contamination refers to the destruction of soil caused by chemical compounds or by other human stimulants. The xenobiotic materials change and adversely influence the soil’s typical structure, directly or indirectly affecting life. Any harmful compounds in the soil, for example, are consumed by the plants and get directly transferred to the food chain, as plants are the primary producers in an ecosystem.
  4. Noise Pollution
    Noise pollution generally involves sounds made by people that are either very disruptive or irritating. Noise pollution refers to the disproportionate levels of noise that interferes with the normal equilibrium of the environment. A noise that is more than 85 decibels is generally considered disruptive. The period of exposure also affects the health of a person.
  1. Air pollution
    Air pollution results from fossil fuel combustion of electricity, transportation, manufacturing, and households. Also, improper waste disposal generated from agriculture and mining can contribute to air pollution. Some external causes, such as volcanic eruptions, dust from wind, sea salt, and organic compounds emissions from plants and natural sources, cause air pollution.
  2. Water pollution
    Water pollution results from the deposition of trash waste into waterways, untreated industrial waste disposal into rivers and lakes, and agricultural drainage containing pesticides and fertilisers.
  3. Soil Pollution
    Soil decontamination is intimately linked to the extent of soil pollution. Some prevalent soil pollution sources are extensive use of pesticides, improper waste disposal, and uncontrolled industrial activities.
  4. Noise Pollution
    Some of the sources causing noise pollution are transportation honkings, industrial or construction noises, and other sources like festivals, functions, etc. Some natural causes can be thunders, volcano eruptions, etc.

Pollutants are contaminated elements, molecules, and particles that cause pollution – the existence of these substances can have a damaging effect on human beings and plants. Pollutants can be defined as follows: Primary pollutants are released into the atmosphere, while secondary pollutants and uncontrollable factors are considered secondary pollutants.

Primary pollutants include Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur oxides (SOx), Particulate matter (PM), Mercury, and many more. Sulfuric acid and nitric acid, Ozone (O3), Peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter are some of the secondary pollutants.

Two of the significant effects of pollution are the greenhouse effect and global warming. Global warming is the incremental heating of the soil, sea, and atmosphere of the Earth. It is a consequence of human activities, resulting from burning fossil fuels, pumping carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and other greenhouse gases. It is predicted that global warming will have long-term and, in many cases, catastrophic impacts on the Earth.

The greenhouse effect is a mechanism that warms the surface of the Earth. As radiation from the Sun enters the planet, some return to space, while the remaining is absorbed and re-radiated by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, ozone, and certain artificial compounds, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The energy collected heats the Earth’s crust and the atmosphere. This mechanism keeps the planet’s temperature warmer than otherwise at about 33 degrees Celsius, allowing life on the ground to survive.

Any environmental aspect has been of equal importance, be it soil, air or water. The significance of the experiments is focused on the seriousness of the contaminated source. Therefore, the magnitude and influence of contamination, socio-economic, geographical and climatic conditions of a region depend on the scope and the need for evaluation.

  1. What are the various health consequences related to air pollution?

Answer: Accelerated lung ageing. Loss of lung capacity and decreased lung function are some of the bad effects of air pollution.

  1. List some of the hazardous contaminants in water resources.

Answer: Lead, chlorine, arsenic, radioactive materials, etc., are hazardous contaminants.

  1. How can we stop the ill effects of soil pollution?

Answer: Soil pollution can be decreased by well-controlled disposal of garbage and through the avoidance of waste, reduced use and storage of hazardous products, recycling of waste generated, decreasing use of toxic fertilisers as well as pesticides and insecticides.

To get an in-depth concept of the above-discussed topic, along with detailed visual explanations of pollution and other related matters, you can check out MSVgo. At MSVgo, you get excellent course content, video lectures, animations, and whatnot.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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