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Chapter 3 – Human Anatomy and Physiology

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The arrangement and the working mechanism of a human body are interconnected to anatomy and physiology. Cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems are the building blocks of all living creatures on earth. It would be best if you mastered human anatomy and physiology to know the entire mechanisms and workings of these organs.

The structure and the connection between body parts are only concerned with anatomy, while physiology focuses on studying body parts’ functions.

The cell is the fundamental unit of life. A total of 30 to 40 trillion cells is produced for the human, and about 242 billion new cells are produced every day. When a select cell community with identical functions is merged, the tissue is formed, which aggregates to give rise to various organs and organ systems in the human body.

  1. . Digestive system
  • Digestion is the intricate mechanism of converting food into nutrients, which your body needs for survival, growth, and cell repair. The process of digestion also includes the production of waste.
  • Anatomy – Mouth, teeth, tongue, oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, small and large intestines, and rectum are parts of the anatomy. 
  • The digestive process begins with chewing (chewing food). The saliva then combines with food and produces a bolus which can quickly be ingested. The meal flows down the oesophagus and in the stomach after swallowing. 
  • The stomach secretes intense digestive enzymes that disintegrate the food into a slurry.
  • The bile secreted in the liver and vital digestive enzymes from the pancreas are then going into the small intestine, where the food is broken down even further. At this point, nutrients in the food are absorbed.
  • The remaining substance is then transposed from liquid to solid until water is extracted to the large intestine. It is ready to get removed from the body after the leftover has been pushed to the rectum.
  1. Respiratory system
  • Respiration is a carbohydrate oxidation process that produces energy used by an individual in sustaining life.
  • Anatomy – Nostrils, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveoli.
  • In the process of respiration, glucose is broken down into pyruvate, which is further broken down into pyruvic acid.
  • The process of respiration involves two steps – breathing and cellular respiration.
  • Breathing is the process of inhaling atmospheric oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide. Simultaneously, cellular respiration is the process of breakdown of simpler foods to generate energy for the body cells.
  1. Circulatory system
  • The circulatory system transports different substances in individuals. The role of the substance carrier is played by blood in the circulatory system.
  • Anatomy – heart, arteries, veins, and blood capillaries
  • The heart is a muscular organ that operates through a complex network of blood vessels to pump blood across the body.
  • Arteries are the thick-walled blood vessels, which drive away oxygenated blood from the heart, while veins are the blood vessels, which introduce deoxygenated blood into the heart. 
  • Capillaries are the narrow blood vessels that facilitate oxygen, nutrients, and waste from the circulatory system and tissues.
  1. Excretory system
  • Excretion is a body waste and extra water elimination process. It is one of the essential aspects of the body for maintaining homeostasis. The urinary system’s crucial role is to filter and excrete waste and surplus water from the blood.
  • Anatomy: While kidneys are the primary excretory organs, many other organs take part in waste excretion, namely the large intestine, kidneys, skin, and lungs. The excretory system consists of all these excretion organs along with the kidneys.
  • The structural and functional units of the kidneys are nephrons. More than one million nephrons can be present in a single kidney.
  • The kidney has the purpose of filtering blood and forming urine. Urine is a body’s liquid waste substance excreted by the urinary system. 
  • The urine enters the ureters that transfer the urine by peristalsis into the bladder from the kidneys’ collection ducts. 
  • The bladder is an organ, which gives a nerve impulse to a sphincter which lets the bladder guide the urine into the urethra, removing urine from the body. In the course of urination, the urine exits the body by another sphincter.
  1. Nervous system
  • The nervous system is a coordinated collection of cells engaged in electrochemical stimuli’ conduction upon a response in the reaction site’s sensory receptors.
  • Anatomy: The nervous system is divided into CNS or central nervous system containing the brain and the spinal cord and PNS or peripheral nervous system encompassing all other nerves throughout the body.
  • A complex network of specialised cells known as neurons is essential to the functioning of the nervous system. They can interact by chemical or scheme with other cells at synapses.
  • The CNS fulfils vital body, organ management functions, and higher brain centres to monitor more advanced knowledge processing, including our ideas and conceptions.
  • PNS is further classified into somatic and autonomic nervous systems. 
  • The PNS sensory nerves include sensory receptors that sense internal and external transitions. The CNS collects this information from the associated sensory nerves. Peripheral efferent nerves convey signals to the PNS after the information has been processed in the CNS.

Anatomy & Physiology can explain the complexity and combination of the human body’s processes. It is essential for science, and you can enhance other population livelihoods and well-being by studying and mastering this field.

  1.  Define human anatomy?
    The study of the components of the human body is referred to as human anatomy. An understanding of anatomy is crucial in medical practice and other disciplines of medicine.
  2. What are the different types of anatomy?
    The two major types of anatomy is gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy.
  3. What are the different stages of digestion?
    The different stages of digestion are ingestion, breakdown, absorption, and elimination.
  4. What is the significance of human CVS?
    CVS functions in oxygen circulation and supplies nutrients to cells. Moreover, it prevents the cells from illness and diseases.
  5. Which is the most pivotal organ of the respiratory system and why?
    The lungs, which carry out the gaseous exchange while we breathe, are the main organs of the respiratory system. They are used to distribute oxygen-rich blood into all the tissues of the body.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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