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Chapter 1 – Basic Biology

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

Biology refers to the study of life. It includes all kinds of living organisms, including humans and animals. The concept of basic biology is too broad and involves everything that survives on earth. It even includes organisms that you cannot see through your naked eyes, like bacteria or DNA. 

The study of biology is based on five major pillars:

  • Cells are the first step to life.
  • Genes are the basic units that are passed on from one generation to another.
  • Evolution by random selection is the factor that is responsible for the diversity in life. 
  • Living organisms are known to maintain a certain kind of environment within their cells and body.
  • Living organisms have a unique ability to absorb and release energy.

Cells are the building blocks of life. It is the smallest unit that contains life on earth. The study of cells is termed ‘cell biology,’ ‘cellular biology,’ or ‘cytology.’ Cells are made up of many substances, like water, inorganic ions, or carbon-containing compounds. Water is one of the major constituents of cells. Water accounts for more than 70% of the substance inside the cells. 

There are different kinds of organisms in terms of their cell structure. Some organisms have a single cell structure and are termed unicellular, whereas others contain multiple cells and are called multicellular. For instance, bacteria are unicellular, whereas plants and most animals, and even humans, are multicellular.

There is a fragile line between the cell cycle and cell division. The cell cycle is the series or continuation of a cell’s life, whereas cell division implies splitting a cell into two or more offsprings. 

The cell cycle is the series of a period in a cell’s life. 

The cell cycle has four major stages – 

  1. G1 – Here, the cellular content, excluding the chromosomes, is duplicated. 
  2. S (synthesis phase) – Each of the 46 chromosomes is duplicated by the cell. 
  3. G2 – Here, the duplicated chromosomes are double-checked by the cells. In case of any errors, the same is rectified. 
  4. M (mitosis phase) – Finally, the mitosis partitions the genetic material, and the cells get divided. 

Cell division is the process by which the cell multiplies. It includes both nuclear as well as cytoplasmic division. 

Cell division is a major of two types – 

  • Mitosis – Mitosis is the cell division process when the offspring cell’s traits are derived from the parent cell. For instance, in mitosis, the parent cell gets divided into two daughter cells. These daughter cells have similar characteristics to each other and that of the parent cell too. Mitosis is also termed as equational division, as here, both the parent and the daughter cell have the same number of chromosomes. 
  • Meiosis – Meiosis is the cell division process where the parent cell chromosomes are reduced by half, and then four new daughter cells are formed. Meiosis further can be divided into two major cell divisions—meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis I can further be divided into four stages—prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I. Whereas meiosis II can be divided into prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II.

Chromosomes are the minute thread-like part of the cells known to pass characteristics or hereditary information in the form of genes. One of the essential features of a chromosome is its compactness. 

When it comes to the structure of a chromosome, it is made up of DNA that is tightly seen around the protein structure and is termed histones. Each chromosome contains a centre point, which is known as the centromere. It is the point where the chromosome is divided into two major sections. The long section is termed the ‘Q’ arm, whereas the short section is termed the ‘P’ arm. It is the location of the centromere, which defines the structure and location of the chromosome.

The significance of inheritance was first studied and brought into light by George Mendel during 1856-1863. As a part of his experiment on peas, three major laws were derived, which are as follows:

  • Law of Dominance – This is the first law that states that the hybrid inherits only their parents’ dominant traits. The traits that are not dominant are called recessive traits. 
  • Law of Segregation – As per this law, during reproduction, two copies of hereditary factor get separated, and then each part is absorbed by each offspring.
  • Law of Independent Assortment – This law states that any trait is free to segregate into the offspring during the formation of gamete.

Basic biology is the science of life. It is about living organisms that we can see and some we cannot see through our naked eyes. The science behind genetics, cell division and cell cycle is quite interesting and eye-opening. This chapter helps in understanding the concepts behind inheritance and different theories surrounding the same.

  1. What do you understand by chromosomes?
    Chromosomes are made up of DNA and are responsible for carrying genetic information from one cell to another.
  2. What is meant by cell division?
    The process by which a parent cell divides into two equal daughter cells.
  3. How many chromosomes does a human body have?
    The human body has 46 chromosomes.
  4. In which cells in the process of mitosis seen?
    The process of mitosis is seen in the somatic cells.
  5. Which part of the cell is associated with hereditary?
    Chromosomes are associated with hereditary.
  6. What is the result of an alarming cell division?
    The result of an alarming cell division is cancer.

A quick revision of different topics under basic biology can be really helpful during the exams. In such a situation, video libraries available under MSVgo can be quite helpful. With MSVgo, you can get a high degree of conceptual clarity, which can help you get a good grip on your subjects. The application is available both on iOS and android platforms. Make the most of it!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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