The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:
States of Matter: Gases And Liquids is an important topic covered in the 11th portion of chemistry from the NCERT. Although this reasonably easy topic is started from class 7th science, a major chunk of practical application use comes from the 11th class. We all have studied fundamentally three states of matter, namely solids, liquids, and gases. Although scientists and modern-day science are finding new additions to this main plasma, we will take only three states of matter in further discussions.
Solids are matter having mass, fixed shape, size, and volume. Their atoms are rigidly packed and do not flow when simple stress is applied to it. This solid definition applies to most of the objects which we see around us. Solids are the coolest state of naturally occurring substances on Earth. They are separated from liquids and gases by the relatively closely packed molecules compared to liquids and gases. They are incompressible. They have fixed shapes and fixed volume (obvious). Example: Sugar cubes, wood, tables, chairs, cars, chalk, and many more things.
According to NCERT, the liquid definition follows the statement that anything can flow and has mass and volume in it. Liquids are the second hottest state of naturally occurring substances on Earth. They have intermediate distances between individual atoms/molecules when compared to solids/gases. They are not highly compressible compared to gases. They don’t have a fixed shape (obvious) and fixed volume, as they can’t be compressed. Example: Water, petrol, etc.
Gases don’t have fixed mass, shape, and size. Their atoms freely flow in the surroundings. Gases are the hottest state of the naturally occurring substances on the Earth. They are separated from solids and gases by the relatively vast distances between the individual atoms or molecules due to low attraction between them. They are highly compressible when compared to liquids and gases. They don’t have a fixed shape (obvious) and no fixed volume ( as they can be compressed).
Now let’s take a look at another exciting state of matter.
Bose-Einstein condensates are not like the forms of matter you are most familiar with such as solids and liquids. This form of matter is not vaporous like a gas or fluid like a liquid or hard like a solid. It’s very hard to find the right words to describe the characteristics of Bose-Einstein condensate because it doesn’t come from this world – you’ve never seen it! It is created in the realm of quantum mechanics(also called quantum physics), which is the branch of physics that deals with what is happening inside atoms. Atoms are like tiny Lego bricks that make up all of the stuff in the universe.
With the developing tools and technologies in chemistry, there is an increased probability of finding any new state of matter other than the currently known states of matter: gases and liquids. We can assume that there are three states of matter for practical applications, namely solid, liquid, and gas. You can check about the plasma Bose-Einstein condensates on MSVgo, where you will learn the concepts intuitively. There are many more things in the science world beyond our imagination, and we have started to discover them.