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Chapter 5 – Understanding Elementary Shapes

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


You must have seen shapes all around you. The buildings, your food plates, clocks or even the displays inside a smartphone, all have a fixed shape that can be identified easily. All basic shapes are used to make complex figures that can be used in every-day life. Let us check the basic elementary shape builders that are elemental in constructing any shape.

We can check and compare two line segments by any of these three methods.

  • Observation Comparison: We can look at the given line segments with our naked eyes and use intuition to figure out these line segments’ lengths. This method is good if we need to pick the largest or smallest line segments, but fail short when required to know their exact lengths.
  • Tracing Method: It is a simple method in which we take the first line segment and trace it on the other line segment by purring it over it. By this, we can find the largest as the bigger one would be extending over the smaller line segment.
  • Using a ruler and divider: This method is used to measure the line segments using a ruler accurately. It is used in all geometrical constructions work.

Angles can be measured using a protractor or any square rulers.

  • Right Angles: These angles are 90 degrees apart from each other. Whenever two rays have a common endpoint and are 90 degrees apart, then that constitutes a right angle. You can construct perpendicular lines with this concept.
  • Straight Angle: Straight angles are linear angles. It is possible when two rays with a common endpoint have the other end exactly opposite to each other linearly. This situation is also the largest possible distance between any two rays. The two rays make an angle of 180 degrees with each.
  • Angles Acute: Acute angles are angles measuring less than 90 degrees. To measure such angles, use a protractor and measure the angle. You can also deduce it with observation.
  • Obtuse Angle: Angles measuring greater than 90 degrees are called obtuse angles. You can use a protractor to measure such angles.

Angles are very popular and integral; a concept that is used in geometry. You can check the clocks that always depict some kind of angle during their movement in a real-life application.

The best and most accurate way to measure angles is to use a protractor and put it on the angle. But if you don’t have a protractor, you can make an observational guess or through the tracing method.

Triangles: Any closed polygon of three sides is termed as triangles. Triangle is the most basic form of polygon and a closed figure. There are also different types of triangles.

Classification of Triangles:

Triangles can be classified based on their sides and other properties. They are given below:

  • Scalene triangle: These triangles have three sides of unequal lengths. All of their sides are different.
  • Isosceles triangle: These kinds of triangles have two equal sides, and the third side is different.
  • Equilateral Triangle: When all the three sides of the triangle are the same, we have an equilateral triangle.


Any closed figure with four sides is termed as quadrilaterals. To measure a triangle, you need to have a ruler and protractor. The internal sum property of any quadrilateral states that all the four internal angles sum to 360 degrees.

Let’s check on different kinds of quadrilaterals.

We have many different types of quadrilaterals, including squares, rectangles, rhombus, parallelogram and more. 

Polygons: Any closed figure geometrical shape is called as polygons. Polygons are classified based on their number of sides and angles. We can have many examples of polygons such as triangles, quadrilaterals, hexagon, heptagon, octagon and decagons. The circle is also a polygon with infinite sides.

We can measure and understand polygons by checking their number of sides and angles using rulers and protractors.

Understanding elementary shapes is important. All the complex shapes and figures that we see around are composed of these basic shapes. Even basic shapes are composed of line segments, lines, rays, angles and other entities. We can see shapes all around us. While constructing any buildings or cars, the architects and designers use these simple geometrical shapes and figures to build a complex model that can show different properties upon interaction with nature. Shapes also provide us with the means to interact with nature. For example, roofs that are made slanting can help you wash off the rainwater from the roof. Aeroplanes and cars have streamlined shapes that can reduce the drag and air friction over the object’s body.

  1. What is the meaning of elementary shapes?

Elementary shapes are the basic geometrical shapes that can be made with freehand or using geometrical tools. These are the first shapes that we can make to build any complex shapes.

  1. What are the basic geometrical ideas?

Basic geometrical ideas are some simple shapes such as circles, squares, rectangle, triangle, angles, lines and more. These basic identities help us build complex geometrical figures.

  1. What is an RA tester in maths?

RS tester is a device that tests the nature of any surface in terms of texture and roughness. It is an instrument that can tell you about the surface.

  1. What are the 3 types of geometry?

The three types of geometry are Euclidean geometry, hyperbolic geometry and parabolic geometry.

  1. What are 10 geometric concepts?

The 10 geometric concepts are as follows: line segment, lines, angles, perpendicular, parallel lines, circles, rays, arcs, squares, rectangles, and more.

To explore more, visit MSVgo – a video-based learning app that provides a depth-video tutorial regarding the concept of Euclidean shapes and their properties.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
  • Nuclear Energy
  • Nuclei
  • Oscillations
  • Our Environment
  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
  • Ray optics and optical instruments
  • Semiconductor Devices
  • Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
  • Simple Machines
  • Sound
  • Sources Of Energy
  • Specific and Latent Heats
  • Spherical Mirrors
  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
  • Matter In Our Surroundings
  • Metallurgy
  • Metals And Non-Metals
  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
  • Physical and Chemical Changes
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
  • Polymers
  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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