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Chapter 4 – Basic Geometrical Ideas

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


The study of geometry involves understanding of some basic geometric ideas like the concepts of shapes, sizes and dimensions. It means earth and its measurement marked by the words ‘geo’ and ‘metron’ in the word geometry. Geometry has application in architecture, engineering and other fields.

The basic geometric ideas can be helpful in our daily application also. It is thus very important to understand the basic terminologies. Some of the basic geometric concepts include the concepts of points, line, intersecting lines, parallel lines, ray, curves, polygons, sides, vertices, diagonals, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals and circles. Let us understand them one by one.


Point is nothing but a dot on the paper. It has no length, height or width. It can determine any location, and it is usually marked by just one alphabet. For instance, C is a point.

A Line Segment

The line is the shortest route towards two points.

A line moves to infinity in both directions. It is a unidirectional or one-directional geometric shape. A line lacks a width or a height. It can be intersecting or polygonal. As it can pass through various points, hence it can be named after picking the points.

Intersecting Lines

As the name suggests, they are lines that intersect each other at various common points.

Parallel Lines

When two lines or any pair of lines which never intersect each other at any points, they form parallel lines.

Example: CD II RS


A ray is nothing but a line with a single endpoint on one side and the other side it stretches to infinity. It is different from a line segment which moves to infinity on both sides.


A curve is a constant and a smooth flow of a line lacking any sharp turns. So it bends as well as changes its direction once at least. There are 2 types of curves. First is the Upward curve and the other is a downward curve.


A polygon is a geometric figure which is enclosed by line segments on all its sides. The line segments are called sides and where two vertices meet are called its vertex. For example, a polygon has 4 sides PQ, QR, RS, ST. Now the sides QR and RS meet at R which is a vertex of polygon PQRST. The sides of the polygon are non-collinear.


A corner or angle is formed when two rays arise from common endpoints. Rays are called the sides and endpoints are called the vertex or are also called the angles. Vertex is always in the middle. There are different types of angles which include acute angle, right angle, straight angle and obtuse angle.


A three-sided polygon is called a triangle. There are three vertices and three angles.


When a polygon has four sides, it is called a quadrilateral. It also has four angles and vertices. Quadrilaterals can be of various types like square, rectangle and others.


A geometric figure which neither has a start or an endpoint is a circle. It has a radius which is a connecting line from the centre of the circle to any of the points of the circle. A diameter is a line segment that connects the points of the circle passing through the centre. A chord is a line segment that connects any two points in the circle.

As we see above, the basic geometric idea is the study of shapes and sizes or the study of flat or different dimensional structure. They have very significant applications in real life. Look at the buildings around you. They are works of architecture. See the machines running and helping in our day to day lives like the mixer grinder to even aeroplanes. Everywhere there is the application of geometry.

  1. What are the basic geometrical ideas?

They are as follows:-

  • Point is any dot on the paper and has no length, height or width.
  • The line is the shortest route between two points.
  • The line can be an intersecting and parallel line.
  • A ray is a line where one end continues till infinity, and another point is limited.
  • A geometric figure enclosed by a line on each side is a polygon.
  • A polygon with three sides is a triangle and with four sides is a quadrilateral.
  • The circle has no start or endpoint.
  1. What are the basic concepts of geometry?

The basic concept of geometry revolves around point, line circle and enclosed figure. As discussed above, it can be of various types.

  1. What are adjacent sides Class 6?

Adjacent Sides is with reference to a polygon where any two sides have a common end. For example, say that sides AB and BC are adjacent as they terminate at a common end C.

  1. What is geometry math?

The branch of mathematics that studies the sizes, positions, shapes, angles and various dimensions is called geometry. It can be the study dealing with flat figures like the circle or line or even the study of the complicated 2 or 3-dimensional structures.

  1. What are 10 geometric concepts? 

As explained above, they involve the concept of points, line, intersecting lines, parallel lines, ray, curves, polygons, sides vertices, diagonals, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles.

  1. What are 10 geometric terms?

Points, line, intersecting lines, parallel lines, ray, curves, polygons, sides vertices, diagonals, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles.

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High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
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  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
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  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
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  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
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  • Physical world
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  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
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  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
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  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
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  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
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  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
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  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
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  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
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  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
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  • The Periodic Table
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  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
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  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
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  • Kingdom Monera
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  • Life Processes
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  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
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  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
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  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
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  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
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  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
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  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
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  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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