# Chapter 4 – Basic Geometrical Ideas

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

The study of geometry involves understanding of some basic geometric ideas like the concepts of shapes, sizes and dimensions. It means earth and its measurement marked by the words ‘geo’ and ‘metron’ in the word geometry. Geometry has application in architecture, engineering and other fields.

#### Basic Geometrical Ideas

The basic geometric ideas can be helpful in our daily application also. It is thus very important to understand the basic terminologies. Some of the basic geometric concepts include the concepts of points, line, intersecting lines, parallel lines, ray, curves, polygons, sides, vertices, diagonals, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals and circles. Let us understand them one by one.

Points

Point is nothing but a dot on the paper. It has no length, height or width. It can determine any location, and it is usually marked by just one alphabet. For instance, C is a point.

A Line Segment

The line is the shortest route towards two points.

A line moves to infinity in both directions. It is a unidirectional or one-directional geometric shape. A line lacks a width or a height. It can be intersecting or polygonal. As it can pass through various points, hence it can be named after picking the points.

Intersecting Lines

As the name suggests, they are lines that intersect each other at various common points.

Parallel Lines

When two lines or any pair of lines which never intersect each other at any points, they form parallel lines.

Example: CD II RS

Ray

A ray is nothing but a line with a single endpoint on one side and the other side it stretches to infinity. It is different from a line segment which moves to infinity on both sides.

Curves

A curve is a constant and a smooth flow of a line lacking any sharp turns. So it bends as well as changes its direction once at least. There are 2 types of curves. First is the Upward curve and the other is a downward curve.

Polygons

A polygon is a geometric figure which is enclosed by line segments on all its sides. The line segments are called sides and where two vertices meet are called its vertex. For example, a polygon has 4 sides PQ, QR, RS, ST. Now the sides QR and RS meet at R which is a vertex of polygon PQRST. The sides of the polygon are non-collinear.

Angles

A corner or angle is formed when two rays arise from common endpoints. Rays are called the sides and endpoints are called the vertex or are also called the angles. Vertex is always in the middle. There are different types of angles which include acute angle, right angle, straight angle and obtuse angle.

Triangles

A three-sided polygon is called a triangle. There are three vertices and three angles.

Quadrilaterals

When a polygon has four sides, it is called a quadrilateral. It also has four angles and vertices. Quadrilaterals can be of various types like square, rectangle and others.

Circles

A geometric figure which neither has a start or an endpoint is a circle. It has a radius which is a connecting line from the centre of the circle to any of the points of the circle. A diameter is a line segment that connects the points of the circle passing through the centre. A chord is a line segment that connects any two points in the circle.

#### Conclusion

As we see above, the basic geometric idea is the study of shapes and sizes or the study of flat or different dimensional structure. They have very significant applications in real life. Look at the buildings around you. They are works of architecture. See the machines running and helping in our day to day lives like the mixer grinder to even aeroplanes. Everywhere there is the application of geometry.

#### FAQs

1. What are the basic geometrical ideas?

They are as follows:-

• Point is any dot on the paper and has no length, height or width.
• The line is the shortest route between two points.
• The line can be an intersecting and parallel line.
• A ray is a line where one end continues till infinity, and another point is limited.
• A geometric figure enclosed by a line on each side is a polygon.
• A polygon with three sides is a triangle and with four sides is a quadrilateral.
• The circle has no start or endpoint.
1. What are the basic concepts of geometry?

The basic concept of geometry revolves around point, line circle and enclosed figure. As discussed above, it can be of various types.

1. What are adjacent sides Class 6?

Adjacent Sides is with reference to a polygon where any two sides have a common end. For example, say that sides AB and BC are adjacent as they terminate at a common end C.

1. What is geometry math?

The branch of mathematics that studies the sizes, positions, shapes, angles and various dimensions is called geometry. It can be the study dealing with flat figures like the circle or line or even the study of the complicated 2 or 3-dimensional structures.

1. What are 10 geometric concepts?

As explained above, they involve the concept of points, line, intersecting lines, parallel lines, ray, curves, polygons, sides vertices, diagonals, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles.

1. What are 10 geometric terms?

Points, line, intersecting lines, parallel lines, ray, curves, polygons, sides vertices, diagonals, angles, triangles, quadrilaterals, circles.

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