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Chapter 1 – Relations And Functions

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


You might have come across Relation and Functions while studying algebra. In mathematics, both these terms have different meanings. So it is paramount first to comprehend the definition of both terms before moving ahead. 

A function is a connection that portrays that there ought to be just one output for each input. We can say that an exceptional sort of connection (lots of ordered sets), which observes a standard, i.e., each X-value ought to be related, with just a single y-value, is known as a function.

It is a subcategory of the Cartesian item. Or, on the other hand, a lot of focus (ordered sets). All in all, the connection between the two sets is characterized as the assortment of the arranged pair, in which the arranged pair is shaped by the article from each set. We hope this article will assist you in clearing your concepts effortlessly. This article will talk more about the types of relations and functions.

The following are the different types of relations:-

Empty Relation

When there’s no component of set X that is connected or planned to any component of X, at that point, the connection R in A is an unfilled relation and furthermore called the void connection. For instance, whenever set A = {4, 5, 6} at that point, one of the void relations can be R = {x, y} where, |x – y| = 10.

Empty Relation = R = φ ⊂ A × A

Universal Relation

R is a connection in a set. Suppose A will be a general relation in light of the fact that, in this full connection, each component of A is identified, with each relation of A. If set A = {a, b, c}. Presently one, of the universal relations will be R = {x, y} where, |x – y| ≥ 0.

Universal Relation = R = A × A

Reflexive Relation

A relation is a reflexive relation if each component of set A guides itself, i.e for each a ∈ A, (a, a) ∈ R. If a set A = {4, 5}. Presently an illustration of reflexive connection will be R = {(4, 4), (5, 5), (4, 5), (5, 4)}

Therefore reflexive relation is  (a, a) ∈ R

Symmetric Relation

A symmetric relation is a connection R on a set A in the event that (a, b) ∈ R at that point (b, a) ∈ R, for each of the an and b ∈ A.

Symmetric Relation =  aRb ⇒ bRa, ∀ a, b ∈ A

Transitive Relation

In the event that (a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R, at that point (a, c) ∈ R, for all a,b,c ∈ An and this connection in set A is transitive.

Transitive Relation = aRb and bRc ⇒ aRc ∀ a, b, c ∈ A

Equivalence Relation

If a connection is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive, at that point, the relation is called an Equivalence Relation.

The following are the types of function in terms of relations:-

One to one function or injective function. A function f: P → Q is supposed to be balanced if for every component of P there is a different component of Q. Consider if a1 ∈ An and a2 ∈ B, f is characterized as f: A → B with the end goal that f (a1) = f (a2).

  • Many to one function

A function that maps at least two components of B to a similar component of set C. At least two components of B have a similar picture in C.

  • Onto function or Surjective function

A function for which each component of set Q there is pre-picture in set P.

  • One-one correspondence or Bijective function

The capacity (f) matches with every component of P, with a separate component of Q, and each part of Q has a pre-picture in P.

Question 1. What are the examples of Relation and Functions?

Answer. Function example:-



Relation example:- {(- 2, 1), (4, 3), (7, – 3)}, normally written in set documentation structure with wavy sections.

Question 2. What are Domain and Range?

Answer. The domain is an assortment of the primary qualities in the arranged pair (Set of all info (x) values).

The range is an assortment of the second qualities in the arranged pair (Set of all yield (y) values).

Question 3. How can we convert a relation into a function?

Answer.  An exceptional sort of connection (a bunch of requested sets) that adheres to a standard, i.e., each X-value ought to be related with just a single y-value. At that point, the connection is known as a function.

Question 4. How to figure out if a relation is a function?

Answer.  At this point, when each information estimation of a capacity creates the only yield, it is known as a function. Here, the information value is known as domain, and output values are known as the range.

Question 5. What is Identity Relation?

Answer. If each component of set An is identified with itself just, it is called Identity relation. I={(A, A), ∈ a}.

Here it is to be noted that all functions are relations, but not all relations are functions. Relations And Functions is one of the most important parts of algebra. It is an easy concept that demands conceptual clarity. You can check the MSVgo app to know more about the topic. The MSVgo philosophy is to enable a core understanding of any concept. MSVgo is a video library that explains concepts with examples or explanatory visualizations or animations. Check out videos on MSVgo to understand the concept behind Relations And Functions. Happy learning!

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
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High School Chemistry

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High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
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High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
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Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
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  • Cell – Structure And Functions
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Middle School Math

  • Addition
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  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
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  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
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  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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