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Chapter 2 – Solutions

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:


Understanding solutions and the role they play in Chemistry is important for you. Solutions are homogeneous combinations of two or more than two segments. A homogeneous mixture indicates that the composition and the proprieties are of the same phrase throughout the mixture. When the component is presented in large quantities, it is called the solvent, whereas if one or more components are there, it is called Solutes. For example: Salt & Sugar is the best example of a solution. These notes will help you grasp the core concept of Solutions with ease and you can also use them for revision!

Solutions can be classified in the following ways –

Types of SolutionsSoluteSolventsExamples
GaseousGasGasThe mixture of oxygen and nitrogen gas.
LiquidGasChloroform mixed with nitrogen gas.
SolidGasCamphor in nitrogen gas.
LiquidGasLiquidOxygen dissolved in water
LiquidLiquidEthanol dissolved in water
SolidLiquidGlucose dissolves in water
SolidGasSolidThe solution of hydrogen in palladium
LiquidSolidAn amalgam of mercury with sodium
SolidSolidCopper dissolved on Gold

The composition of a solution is explained by expressing its concentration. Diluted or concentrated is the qualitative way of expressing the concentration of the solution. But these descriptions can forge a horde of confusion in mind, so there is a paramount need for the quantitative description of the solution to comprehend better. The following ways include-

Mass percentage- When the concentration is represented as the one percent of the component in the solution by Mass, it is called Mass percentage. If there are two components – one is solute, and the other is solvent in the solution then it is defined as mass % of a component-

Mass of the first component in the solution x 100

Total Mass of the solution

  • Volume percentage- Many times, concentration is expressed as the percentage of one component by volume. It is defined as the volume % of the component –

Volume of component x 100

Total volume of solution

For instance – if ethanol in water is 10% then by volume, it means 100ml of the solution will have 10ml ethanol. 

  • Mass by volume percentage- This method is mostly used in the medicines and pharmacy industry. It is the Mass of solute dissolved in 100ml of the solution.
  • Parts per million- Whenever a solute is available in trace quantities, it becomes easy to indicate concentration in parts per million(ppm). It is denoted as –

Number of parts of the component x 106

Total Mass of the solution   

  • Mole Fraction- If both dissolvable and solute are accessible in the arrangement, a mole fraction offers an extent of fixation that is exhibited by x. A mole is a unit of the proportion of substance (n) 

     Mole fraction of a component – Number of moles of the component / Sum of the total number of moles of components 

  •  Molarity- It is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter or one cubic decimeter of solution.

Molarity = Moles of Solute/The volume of solution in a liter

Suppose 0.45M is in the solution of ethanol that means in 1 liter of solution, 0.45 moles of ethanol is dissolved.

  • Molality – It can be described as the number of moles of the solute per kilogram of the solvent. The formula is-

 Molality – Moles of solute/

      Mass of solvent in Kg

The usage of the colligative properties of a solution is used to identify the molecular weight of the various compounds. This method is extensively used in determining the molar masses of the complex molecules, proteins, and polymers. Let’s concoct the colligative properties –

  •  Boiling Point Elevation- It is the phenomenon that illustrates that the boiling point of the liquid elevates when another compound is mixed. This rise in breaking point is corresponding to the molal centralization of the solute in the arrangement. The formula is as follows –



ΔTb = elevation in boiling point

Kb = Boiling Point Elevation Constant

m = molal concentration of the solution 

  •   Depression Of Freezing Point-  It is used to determine the molar masses that are similar to the ennobling of the boiling point. It is conveyed as

Depression in freezing point is expressed as:



ΔTf = depression of freezing point

Kb = Freezing Point Constant

m = molal concentration of the solution

  • Osmotic Pressure- It is the minimal effort that should be applied to forestall the internal progression of its pure solvent over a semipermeable layer. It is additionally characterized as the proportion of the propensity of the solution to take in pure solvent via osmosis whose formula is- 



π =osmotic pressure

C= Molar concentration of the solution

R= Universal gas constant

T= Temperature

  •  Van T Hoff Factor – It quantifies the upshot of the solute of the Boiling Point Elevation, Depression Of Freezing Point, and Osmotic Pressure that is cardinal colligative properties. In other words, it is the proportion of the centralization of particles shaped when a substance is broken down to the convergence of the substance by Mass. It is expressed as –

i=alpha n+(1- alpha)

Where –

i- Van T Hoff Factor

alpha- degree of dissociation

n- the number of ions formed from one formula

Solutions are the most indispensable topic for Class 12, and it helps in the understanding of human nutrition and the study of food. For a more detailed explanation, check out videos on MSVgo to discern the concept better. MSVgo is an app with a core doctrine to succor you to understand the notion and apprehend the complex topics in an easy manner that remain instilled in your mind for a long time.

High School Physics

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Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
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