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Chapter 2 – Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals

The following Topics and Sub-Topics are covered in this chapter and are available on MSVgo:

Introduction

You might have come across various and diverse forms of life on this earth while living your day to day life. Such an observation is made either by the naked eye or with the help of magnifying equipment such as lenses and microscopes. You would have also observed that such a description of these various forms of life is usually just that of the body features and shapes from the outside.

However, the unique aspect of such a description is that in the heydays of Biology, biologists were not much concerned with the overall description of the structural organisation in plants and animals but were rather more interested in the processes that made an organism to be considered a living process. However, for the scientists and the biologists to understand the physical processes that they wished to know, the general description that was available at the time turned out to be very helpful in nature.

You would be knowing some of the topics that will be covered today as they are associated with the structural organisation in plants and animals, but the same shall also be briefly covered below for quick reference. So let us begin:

The cell is considered to be the most basic unit of life. You would have read the words that they are the smallest unit of life that are capable of performing life functions. Cells are quite unique in the sense that they get the purpose of what they are going to perform usually when they group together for a specific purpose. The living organisms are either composed of a lot of cells that are grouped together, known as a multicellular organism, or simply one single cell.

As mentioned above, when the cells group together to perform some specific function and have a similar structure. The word “tissue” has its origins in the old French verb, which means “to weave”. Tissues can be classified into four different types which are connective tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue and epithelial tissue. However, when it comes to plants, the tissues are classified into three types – ground tissue, vascular tissue and epidermal tissue.

Epithelial tissue, or epithelium, covers the surfaces of organs including the skin, the windpipe, the regenerative parcel, and the stomach related plot’s inward coating. It makes an obstruction that ensures organs, and it additionally has parts in engrossing water and supplements, disposing of waste, and discharging proteins or hormones.

This kind of tissue is unique in the sense that it can either divide or connect the tissues. This tissue is found in between all the tissues and organs in the human body. The tissue is made up of a unique gel-like substance that surrounds the cell from all sides and is made of ground substance and cells. Except for the lymph tissue and the blood tissue, most tissues are made up of fibres which are a kind of long and narrow protein. Fibres can be collagenous, which bind bones to tissues; flexible, which permit organs like the lungs to move; or reticular, which offer actual help to cells. Connective tissue additionally permits oxygen to diffuse from veins into cells.

Muscle tissue involves all the muscles in the body, and the particular idea of the tissue is the thing that permits muscles to contract. There are three sorts of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle, cardiovascular muscle, and smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle secures ligaments to bones and permits the body to move. Cardiovascular muscle is found in the heart and agreements to siphon blood. Smooth muscle is found in the digestive organs, where it helps move food through the stomach related plot, and it is likewise found in different organs like veins, the uterus, and the bladder.

Sensory tissue, also called nervous tissues, are found in the cerebrum, spinal line, and fringe nerves, which are generally parts of the sensory system. It is composed of neurons, which are nerve cells, and neuroglia, which are cells that help nerve driving forces travel. Sensory tissue is gathered into four kinds: dim issue and white issue in the cerebrum, and nerves and ganglia in the fringe sensory system. The principal contrast among dark and white tissue is that axons of the neurons in dark tissue are unmyelinated, while in white tissue they are myelinated. Myelin is a white, greasy substance that protects neurons and is essential for the sensory system working.

The structural organisation of plants and animals is as diverse as it is beautiful. A study into the characteristics of the structural organisation of plants and animals reveals a lot of unique things which can be further used to advance research into various areas related to biology.

Q. What is the structural organisation of an animal?

The structural organisation flows from Cells to Tissues and then to Organs, before finally ending at the Organ System.

Q. What is the structural organisation of plants?

The plant structure is divided into three sections: Roots, Stems and Leaves.

Q. What is the main basis of difference in structural organisation between plants and animals?

The presence of unique cell structure is the main basis of difference in structural organisation between plants and animals.

Q. What are the levels of organisation in plants and animals?

Plants have 3 levels of structures, while animals have 4 levels of structures.

Q. What is structural organisation?

The organisation of a structure of an organism that begins from cell all the way to a multicellular organism is called a structural organisation.

The above topics are discussed briefly, and since the learnings are critical, you can also check out videos on the MSVgo website or the MSVgo app to understand the concepts behind them.

High School Physics

  • Alternating Current
  • Atoms
  • Communication Systems
  • Current Electricity
  • Dual nature of Radiation and Matter
  • Electric Charges and Fields
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetic Induction
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electron Beams and Radioactivity
  • Electrons and Photons
  • Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
  • Fluid Pressure
  • Force and Acceleration
  • Force And Laws Of Motion
  • Gravitation
  • Internal Energy
  • Kinetic Theory
  • Law of motion
  • Light – Reflection And Refraction
  • Magnetic Effects Of Electric Current
  • Magnetism and Matter
  • Management Of Natural Resources
  • Mechanical properties of Fluids
  • Mechanical properties of Solids
  • Motion
  • Motion in a plane
  • Motion in a straight line
  • Moving Charges and Magnetism
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  • Nuclei
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  • Paths of Heat
  • Physical world
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  • Sources Of Energy
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  • Static Electricity
  • Systems of Particles and Rotational motion
  • Thermal properties of matter
  • Thermodynamics
  • Units and Measurement
  • Vectors, Scalar Quantities and Elementary Calculus
  • Wave Optics
  • Waves
  • Work, Power and Energy

High School Chemistry

  • Acids, Bases and Salts
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • Alkyl and Aryl Halides
  • Amines
  • Analytical Chemistry 
  • Atomic Structure
  • Atoms And Molecules
  • Basic concepts of Chemistry
  • Biomolecules
  • Carbon And Its Compounds
  • Carboxylic acids and Acid Derivatives
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structures
  • Chemical Energetics
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  • Chemical Reactions And Equations
  • Chemical Reactions and Their Mechanisms
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Chemistry of p-Block elements
  • Chemistry of Transition and Inner Transition
  • Classification of Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Cyanide, Isocyanide, Nitro compounds and Amines
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolysis
  • Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
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  • Equilibrium
  • Ethers and Carbonyl compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
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  • Hydrogen
  • Ideal solutions
  • Introduction to Organic Chemistry
  • Ionic equilibria
  • Matter
  • Matter Around Us
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  • Mole Concept and Stoichiometry
  • Natural Resources
  • Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles
  • Periodic Classification of Elements
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  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Water
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  • Preparation, Properties and Uses of Compounds
  • Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • Redox Reactions
  • Relative Molecular Mass and Mole
  • States of Matter
  • Structure Of The Atom
  • Study of Compounds
  • Study of Gas Laws
  • Study of Representative Elements
  • Surface Chemistry
  • The d-block and f-block elements
  • The Gaseous State
  • The p-Block Elements
  • The Periodic Table
  • The s-Block Elements
  • The Solid State
  • Thermodynamics

High School Biology

  • Absorption and Movement of Water in Plants
  • Adolescent Issues
  • Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Animal Kingdom
  • Bacteria and Fungi-Friends and Foe
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Biofertilizers
  • Biological Classification
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomolecules
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Biotic Community
  • Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Cell – Unit of Life
  • Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Cell Division and Structure of Chromosomes
  • Cell Reproduction
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Chemical Coordination and Integration
  • Circulation
  • Control And Coordination
  • Crop Improvement
  • Digestion and Absorption
  • Diversity In Living Organisms
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Issues
  • Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Flowering Plants
  • Genes and Chromosomes
  • Health and Diseases
  • Health and Its Significance
  • Heredity And Evolution
  • Heredity and Variation
  • How Do Organisms Reproduce?
  • Human Diseases
  • Human Eye And Colourful World
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Human Population
  • Human Reproduction
  • Hygiene
  • Improvement In Food Resources
  • Integumentary System- Skin
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Life Processes
  • Locomotion and Movement
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Mineral Nutrition
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Neural Control And Coordination
  • Nutrition in Human Beings
  • Organism and Population
  • Photosynthesis
  • Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Plant Growth and Development
  • Plant Kingdom
  • Pollination and Fertilization
  • Pollution; Sources and its effects
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Reproduction and Development in Angiosperms
  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Reproductive Health
  • Respiration in Human Beings
  • Respiration in Plants
  • Respiratory System
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Structural Organisation of the Cell
  • The Endocrine System
  • The Fundamental Unit Of Life
  • The Living World
  • The Nervous System and Sense Organs
  • Tissues
  • Transpiration
  • Transport in Plants

High School Math

  • Algebra – Arithmatic Progressions
  • Algebra – Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
  • Algebra – Linear Inequalities
  • Algebra – Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables
  • Algebra – Polynomials
  • Algebra – Principle of Mathematical Induction
  • Algebra – Quadratic Equations
  • Binomial Theorem
  • Calculus – Applications of Derivatives
  • Calculus – Applications of the Integrals
  • Calculus – Continuity and Differentiability
  • Calculus – Differential Equations
  • Calculus – Integrals
  • Geometry – Area
  • Geometry – Circles
  • Geometry – Conic Sections
  • Geometry – Constructions
  • Geometry – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry
  • Geometry – Three-dimensional Geometry
  • Geometry – Lines and Angles
  • Geometry – Quadrilaterals
  • Geometry – Straight Lines
  • Geometry – Triangles
  • Linear Programming
  • Matrices and Determinants
  • Mensuration – Areas
  • Mensuration – Surface Areas and Volumes
  • Number Systems
  • Number Systems – Real Numbers
  • Permutations and Combinations
  • Probability
  • Sequence and Series
  • Sets and Functions
  • Statistics 
  • Trignometry – Height and Distance
  • Trignometry – Identities
  • Trignometry – Introduction

Middle School Science

  • Acids, Bases And Salts
  • Air and Its Constituents
  • Basic Biology
  • Body Movements
  • Carbon and Its Compounds
  • Cell – Structure And Functions
  • Changes Around Us
  • Chemical Effects Of Electric Current
  • Chemistry in Your Life
  • Coal And Petroleum
  • Combustion And Flame
  • Components Of Food
  • Conservation Of Plants And Animals
  • Crop Production And Management
  • Electric Current And Its Effects
  • Electricity And Circuits
  • Elements and Compounds
  • Fibre To Fabric
  • Food production and management
  • Force And Pressure
  • Forests: Our Lifeline
  • Friction
  • Fun With Magnets
  • Garbage In, Garbage Out
  • Getting To Know Plants
  • Health and Hygiene
  • Heat
  • Hydrogen
  • Life Processes: Nutrition in Animals and Plants
  • Light, Shadows And Reflections
  • Materials: Metals And Non-Metals
  • Matter and Its States
  • Metals and Non-metals
  • Micro Organisms: Friend And Foe
  • Motion And Measurement Of Distances
  • Motion And Time
  • Nutrition In Animals
  • Nutrition In Plants
  • Organization in Living Things
  • Our Environment
  • Physical And Chemical Changes
  • Pollution and conservation
  • Pollution Of Air And Water
  • Reaching The Age Of Adolescence
  • Reproduction In Animals
  • Reproduction In Plants
  • Respiration In Organisms
  • Rocks and Minerals
  • Separation Of Substances
  • Simple Machines
  • Soil
  • Some Natural Phenomena
  • Sorting Materials Into Groups
  • Sound
  • Stars And The Solar System
  • Structure of Atom
  • Synthetic Fibers And Plastics
  • The Living Organisms And Their Surroundings
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Transformation of Substances
  • Transportation In Animals And Plants
  • Universe
  • Waste-water Story
  • Water: A Precious Resource
  • Weather, Climate And Adaptations Of Animals To Climate
  • Winds, Storms And Cyclones

Middle School Math

  • Addition
  • Area and Its Boundary
  • Boxes and Sketches
  • Data Handling
  • Fun With Numbers
  • Heavy and Light
  • How Many
  • Long And Short
  • Mapping
  • Measurement
  • Money
  • Multiplication and Factors
  • Multiply and Divide
  • Numbers
  • Parts and Wholes
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Patterns
  • Play With Patterns
  • Rupees And Paise
  • Shapes And Angles
  • Shapes And Designs
  • Shapes and Space
  • Similarity
  • Smart Charts
  • Squares
  • Subtraction
  • Tables And Shares
  • Tenths and Hundredths
  • Time
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